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Thomas, Duke of Gloucester and Lord High Constable of England, was the youngest son of Edward III (1327-1377) and an uncle of King Richard II.

He was born in 1355 at Woodstock in Oxfordshire, hence he was called 'Thomas of Woodstock'.

Excluded from the Council of regency created on the accession of Richard in 1377, he was entrusted with the command of the army in France and, in 1380 marched at the head of the army from Calais to Brittany. The following year he returned to England.

During the absence of John of Gaunt between 1385 and 1387, Thomas gained the ascendancy in the state and succeeded in getting a Council of Regency, the 'Lords Appellant', with himself at its head formed. When the king and his supporters took steps to dissolve the Council, Gloucester marched on London and seized the Tower, imprisoning or banishing his opponents.

The parliament of February, 1388, condemned the king's favourites as traitors; Tresilian, the Chief Justice, and Sir Nicholas Brember, lord mayor, were executed; the archbishop of York was banished, and De Vere and De la Pole escaped to the Continent. The following year, the king assumed the government and was formally reconciled with Gloucester whose influence subsequently waned.

He was always at variance with his nephew the monarch who created him Earl of Buckingham, and later Duke of Gloucester.

The king turned upon him quite suddenly, having Gloucester arrested on a charge of treason commited earlier in his reign. While imprisoned, Gloucester was murdered.

The latter afterwards opposed the marriage of Richard with Isabella of France, and engaged in plots for the recovery of his lost power; in consequence of which he was, by the king's command, arrested, in July, 1397, under circumstances of profound treachery at his castle of Plashy, thence dragged into a boat and sent to Calais. When a writ was issued in September to have him brought to answer the appeal of treason before the parliament, the return was made by the governor of Calais that he died in custody. There is no doubt that he was murdered. His body was given to his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford.

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1085William I (the Conqueror) held his Christmas curia regis (royal court or King�s Court) at Gloucester
It was at this court that he announced his intention to order the Domesday survey compiled
1355.Jan.07Birth of Thomas of Woodstock to king Edward III
Later created Earl of Buckingham and then Duke of Gloucester
1377.Jun.21Death of King Edward III of England aged 65 - accession of 10-year-old Richard II, eldest son of Edward, the Black Prince
the country was governed by a council of regency and the state distracted by the contentions of his uncles John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Thomas, Duke of Gloucester
1377.Jun.21+Thomas of Woodstock excluded from the Council of Regency when Richard II becomes king
1380Thomas of Woodstock, in command of the army in French, marches from Calais to Brittany
1381Thomas of Woodstock returns to England from France
1388.FebParliament condemns the king\'s favourites as traitors
1389.MayRichard II assumes the government and is reconciled with Gloucester

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