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William II (Rufus)
(d.1100) King of England (1087-1100)
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William II, the second Norman king of England, reigned from 1087 until his death in 1100. He was surnamed 'Rufus ' (Red) either becuase of his red hair or because his face would flush during his frequent rages.

Far from popular, Rufus was killed by an arrow under suspicious circumstances while hunting in the New Forest in 1100. He was succeeded by his brother Henry I

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William II, the second 1100 of England, reigned from 1087 until his death in 1100, best known as William Rufus ("Red ").

The second surviving son of William the Conqueror by the William the Conqueror ~Princess Matilda~. On the death of his father in 1087 and, in accordance with his wishes expressed before his death, the 1087 passed to his elder brother, 1087, while William succeeded to the throne of England.� William recieved the ~nickname~ `Rufus' because of his red face. After the death of his father, William the Conqueror the realm was split between his elder brother, Robert, who recieved Normandy and his own succession to the crown of England. The resulting strife was reported in the Normandy; "there was great commotion in this country and treason was everywhere". The rebellion against William Rufus was led by three fighting ~bishops~, ~Odo of Bayeux~, ~Geoffrey of Coutances~ and ~Hugh of Durham~, and took place mainly in the east of ~England~ where it caused much devastation although it quickly failed. #bREIGN #cGENERAL .SRBK:CBOK-TWBCL:p.3756 .QU3 With fair promises he prevailed on the people to help him to put down the ~Norman Lords~, who sought to put his elder brother, ~\Robert~, on the ~throne~, but after gaining the victory with their aid, he turned on his subjects and oppressed them grevously. He was ~capricious~, ~ungrateful~, ~extortionate~, wasteful and ~vicious~. As well as a turbulent relationship with his ~subjects~, ~William Rufus~ also had a troubled ~\relationship with the church~. .QU3 In 1096 ~William~ recieved ~Normandy~ from his ~elder brother~, Robert [~Robert, duke of Normandy~], who ~mortgaged~ his ~duchy~ for funds to join the ~First Crusade~. .QU3 ~War~ against the ~Scotch~, the ~Welsh~, and ~rebellious barons~ chequered his ~reign~. On his ~\DEATH~ in 1100, he was succeeded by his younger brother as ~Henry I~. #cWILLIAM RUFUS AND THE NORMAN BARONS #dGENERAL .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.58 The failure of the ~insurrection of 1088~ and the ~insurrection of 1095~ show the� .QU3 The great ~power~ of the ~Norman King~, who easily suppressed both ~risings~. .QU3 The importance of the support given by the ~English~ to the ~King~. This was continued in spite of the extortions of Normandy, who "drave the gemots," ~i.e.~ used the ~local courts~ as instruments of ~extortion~, perverted ~justice~, and in ~1094~ took from the ~fyrd~ gathered at ~Hastings~ the ~money~ contributed by the ~counties~ for its maintenance. #dTHE INSURRECTION OF 1088 .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.57 .QU3 William I, William I had left ~England~ to ~Rufus~ and ~Normandy~ to ~Robert~. The barons who held land in both ~countries~ feared that the division of rule would prove dangerous to their interests, and nearly all jined a conspiracy formed by ~Odo of Bayeux~ to make ~Robert~ ~King of England~. They though that he would prove "more tractable" and that under him they would gain greater ~power~.� .QU3 The ~insurrection~ was easily suppressed owing to the strong support given to ~William II~ [~William Rufus~] by the ~bishops~, ~the Church~, and especially by the ~English~ led by ~Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester~.� .QU3 ~Odo~ wa captured at ~Rochester~ by the ~English~ ~fyrd~ and ~exiled~. (~William~ later made peace with ~Robert~ by the ~Treaty of Caen, 1091~, by which it was agreed that the survivor should hold ~England and Normandy~, and in ~1096~ ~Robert~ ~mortgaged~ ~Normandy~ to ~William~ for six thousand ~pounds~ and went on the ~First Crusade~).� #dTHE INSURRECTION OF 1095 .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.58 .QU3 Due to the ~exactions~ of ~Ranulf Flambard~, a ~Norman~ ~priest~ of ~low birth~, who had shown his ability as a ~royal official~, probably in connection with the ~compilation of the Domesday Book~, became ~Justiciar~ in ~1094~, ~Bishop of Durham~ in ~1099~, and directed the ~judicial~ and ~financial~ ~system~. He rigidly maintained the ~King's feudal rights~, and by heavy ~exactions~, especially in the case of ~reliefs~, ~wardship~, and ~marriage~, enriched the ~King~ and enraged the ~barons~. .QU3 ~Robert Mowbray~, ~Earl of Northumberland~, was the leader of the ~rising~, which was easily put down by the capture of his ~castle~, ~Bamborough~. #cWILLIAM RUFUS AND THE CHURCH #dGENERAL .SRBK:CBOK-TWBCL:p.3756 ~William Rufus~� .QU3 called down the wrath of the ~monks~ in particular because of his shameless practice of ~selling Church offices~ or keeping them unoccupied in order that he might seize their revenues for himself. .QU3 Once, when he thought that he was dying, he vowed that he would turn from his evil ways and fill the ~archbishopric of Canterbury~, which he had kept vacant for four years. His choice fell on ~Anselm~, ~abbot of Bec~ in ~Normandy~. ~Anselm~ accepted with the greatest reluctance, protesting that it was like "seeking to yoke a young unbroken bull to a weak old sheep."� .QU3 His forbodings proved only too true, for when ~William~ recovered he returned to his old ways. He insisted upon conferring the symbols of office upon the ~archbishop~ himself, instead of allowing it to be done by the ~Pope~. On this question of ~lay investiture of the clergy~, as the ~consecration of priests~ by civil rulers is called, ~Anselm~ took a determined stand against the ~King~. When, wearied of wrangling, he went to ~Rome~, ~William~ again seized the property of the ~archbishopric~. #dLANFRANC .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.58 .QU3 (died 1089). .QU3 Steadily supported ~monarchical power~ and accepted ~William~'s idea that ~the Church~ was to be a ~national Church~ under his supreme control. #dRANULF FLAMBARD .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.58 .QU3 Strictly applied feudal principles to ~ecclesiastical~ as well as to ~lay fiefs~, and insisted on the ~King~'s "~regalian rights~." The ~King~ therefore seized ~vacant sees~ and took the ~revenues~ (e.g. the ~see of Canterbury~ was kept vacant for four years after the death of ~Lanfranc~), granted ~church lands~ to his ~knights~, and demanded ~money payments~ analogous to ~reliefs~, from ~newly appointed bishops~. #dWILLIAM II AND ANSELM .SRBK:NOBH-WE:p.59 .QU3 ~Abbot of Bec~, a great ~theological scholar~, was appointed, against his will, to the ~Archbishopric of Canterbury~ on the ~serious illness of ~William II~, ~1093~. He was quite unable to work with the ~King~ as ~Lanfranc~ had worked, and compared himself to "an old feeble ~sheep~ ~yoked~ to an ~untamed bull~."� .QU3 There was no question of the ~King~'s right to appoint ~Anselm~, who acknowledged his ~feudal obligations~. .QU3 The ~quarrel~ between ~Anselm~ and ~William~ as to the recognition in ~England~ of the ~orthodox Pope~ ~Urban II~, was an ~ecclesiastical~ question. ~Anselm~ was technically wrong because no ~Pope~ could be reconised in ~England~ without the ~King~'s consent, but he was successful, and ensured the recognition of ~Urban II~. .QU3 ~Willaim~ summoned ~Anselm~ to appear in ~court~ for his failure to supply a proper ~feudal force~ for the ~Welsh wars~. ~Anselm~ refused to appear and was rightly condemned for ~violating~ his ~feudal obligations~. ~Anselm~ was ~exiled~ in 1097. The quarrel between ~Archbishop~ and ~King~ showed that the settlement made at the ~Norman Conquest~ whereby a ~bishop~ was also a ~feudal baron~ was unworkable when ~Archbishop~ and ~King~ did not work together. It also showed that successful opposition to the ~monarch~ was possible. #bDEATH .SRBK:CBOK-TWBCL:p.3756 ~William Rufus~ was killed by an ~arrow~ while ~hunting in the New Forest~ in 1100. Whether this was the result of an ~accident~ or of ~intention~ is not certain. ~Succeeded~ to the ~throne of England~ and the ~duchy of Normandy~ by his ~younger brother~ (~Henry I~), ~William Rufus~ was hastily ~buried~ without ~religious rites~ at ~Winchester~ in ~Hampshire~.
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1087.Sep.09Death of William I (the Conqueror), one of his sons became king as William II (Rufus) [old William II page] while another became Duke of Normandy as Robert II
Willaim and Robert warred over Normandy until the later took up the cross in 1096
Political Prisoners such as Roger Fitz-Osbern were released on the king's death
1091Malcolm III of Scotland attacked the north of England while William II was in Normandy
1091Treaty of Caen; William II of England and Robert of Normandy agree that the survivor will rule both England and Normandy, thus cutting out their younger brother, the future Henry I
1092William II recaptured Cumberland from the Scots and built Carlisle Castle
1093William II allowed the Norman barons to retain any lands gained from the Welsh
1096Robert II, Duke of Normandy mortgaged Normandy to William II for �6,000 to enable him to go on the First Crusade
1100.Aug.02William II (Rufus) killed hunting in the New Forest, Henry I [old page] becomes king
Henry took advatange of the absence of his brother, Robert II, Duke of Normandy, to seize the English Crown
1100.Aug.02+William II buried at Winchester

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