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STEPHEN & MATILDA
King/Queen of England (1135-1154)
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The drowning of prince William, the only ligitimate male heir to Henry I in the sinking of the White Ship off the coast of Normandy on November 25th, 1120 left the Norman dynasty without a viable heir other than Henry's daughter Maud or Matilda. Although Henry I had made the Witan, the great council of the magnates of the realm, pay homage to Matilda in 1127 as his rightfull heir, and again in 1133 after the birth of her son Henry by Geoffrey of Anjou, the Norman barons disliked the strong-willed queen and distrusted their enemies the Angevins so when the weak Stephen of Blois entered England shortly after Henry's death in 1135 to usurp the throne he was unoposed if not openly welcomed by many.

The civil war between Stephen and Matilda, later to be known as "The Anarchy", which followed destroyed Henry I's legal and administrative reforms, but threw the country into a long period of turmoil. A year before his death, peace was established between the two contenders for the crown when Stephen, already suffering from ill health, agreed that Matilda's son Henry Plantagenet should succeed him on his death as Henry II.

A number of the revellers on the White Ship the may have sensed trouble and, like Stephen of Blois (already ill with diarrhoea), decided to leave and arrange for a later passage.

It is interesting to ponder how the history of England would have progressed on the death of king Henry I in 1035 had Stephen who later claimed the English throne stayed aboard and drowned on the White Ship in 1120.

Roger, Bishop of Salisbury claimed claimed after Henry I's death that he could not be bound by his oath of allegiance to Matilda becuase it had been sworn conditionally - that Henry would not marry his daughter outside of the kingdom without his consent and that of the magnates.

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Stephen

Born in 1096, Stephen de Blois was the fourth son of Stephen II Henry de Blois, Count of Blois, by Adela, the daughter of William the Conqueror. Hubert, his eldest brother, died very young while his brother, William de Champagne, Count of Chartes was an imbecile and was disinherited in favor of his younger brother, Theobald III, who became Count of Blois in 1125. Henry I's favorite nephew, he was never expected to be a candidate for the throne of England and Duchy of Normandy but, by the time of Henry I's death in 1135, he was the eldest legitimate male grandchild of the Conqueror excepting Theobald.

Stephen married Matilda de Boulogne (b. c.1095, died at Faversham on July 3rd, 1151), daughter of Comte Eustace III de Boulogne and Mary of Scotland, in 1125.

According to contemporary account, while Stephen was easy-going and brave in battle, he was politically naive and easily manipulated. Following Henry's death on December 1st, 1135, he hastened to London where he was accepted as king by the magnates and crowned at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop William of Corbeil on December 25th, 1135.

Although the majority of the magnates rallied to Stephen, a minority remained clandestinely loyal to Matilda, particularly her half-brother, Robert, Earl of Gloucester.

Stephen's actions with regard to the royal forests were typical of the many ill-concieved actions of his reign. In an apprently magnanamous gesture, Stephen repealed all prohibitions against hunting and many of Henry's unjust forest laws. Game had become so depleted in the kingdom within a year that Stephen found himself having to re-invoke the old laws.

In 1137, Stephen crossed the Channel to Normandy to unsuccessfuly press his claim to the duchy and his failure to capture it started his loss of support among the magnates. Two years later, his arrest of arrested Bishop Robert of Salisbury and his nephews, Bishop Alex of London, and Chancellor Roger, and the seizure of their wealth on questionable evidence of plotting against him outraged the Church as well. At about the same time Matilda and her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou, landed at Arundel to press Matilda's claim to the throne and starting the period of unrest later known as "The Anarchy".

Died on October 25th, 1154.

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Matilda

When aged only eight or nine, Matilda was married to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V and practically raised in Germany.

Widowed by the death of Henry V, she was married to the Angevin Geoffrey Plantagenet (only fourteen years old) and the marriage was not a happy one - Matilda was sent back to her father on at least one occassion.

Matilda was the eldest survivor of Henry I's legitimate children after the death of Prince William in 1020. She was recognized as Henry's heir by the magnates (including her cousin, Stephen of Blois) and the King of Scotland as his heir in 1127.

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The Anarchy

"The Anarchy" is the name given to the period of turmoil and civil war which prevailed during the reign of Stephen for some twenty years after the death of Henry I in 1135.

After the death of William, the only legitimate male heir of Henry I in the sinking of the White Ship in 1120, the king forced the barons to swear allegiance to his daughter Matilda as his rightfull heir but she was a woman and married to Geoffrey of Anjou.

Despite having sworn allegiance to Matilda, on Henry's death Stepehn ignored the stronger claim of his elder brother Thobald, Count of Blios, and entered London to declare himself king with the agreement of the magnates and the support of the Archbishop of Canterbury and Pope Innocent II. The main opposition to Matilda was from her powerful half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.

David I of Scotland invaded Northumberland, nominally on her behalf, but little fighting actually took place and David was defeated by King Stephen at the Battle of the Standard in August 22nd, 1138.Later that year, Robert of Gloucester changed his allegiance to side with Matilda and Geoffrey of Anjou while Stephen's poor decisions alienated many of his supporters and his own brother, Henry, Bishop of Winchester, turned against him. Matilda entered England in 1139 and made a stand at Arundel Castle in Sussex.

While Stephen's forces were gathering in Oxford, Matilda was unwisely allowed to travel to Bristol where she met up with her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.

The magnates, who claimed to fight for one claimant or the other, actually took advantage of the unrest to increase their own property and wealth and most military actions were raids which served no purpose other than plunder. The barons changed sides many times, usually in response to lavish gifts presented by one side or the other as bribes which only served to increase their wealth and power rather than buy their loyalty.

With Robert's support, Matilda soon amassed sufficient support to march on Lincoln where the only major battle of The Anarchy took place on February 2nd, 1141 resulting in the defeat and capture of Stephen.

While Stepehan was held captive in Bristol, Matilda ruled from London for a short period but her haughty manner earned her many enemies and she was forced to flee for Oxford.

Robert of Gloucester fell into the hands of Stephen's supporters in September 1141 and Matilda decided to trade Robert for the imprisoned Stephen who returned to the throne. By this stage, Stephen and his supporters held most of the country and Matilda was beseiged at Oxford Castle forcing her to make her night-time escape in the snow which became legendary.

Even though Matilda returned to Anjou after Robert of Gloucester's death in 1147, unrest continued throughout the weak Stephen's reign and the order and strong government established by Henry I disintegrated to the extent that that the period has been described as "Christ and all his saints slept" and gave rise to it being popularly known as "The Anarchy".

In 1153, Stephen was already in poor health and was dealt a sudden blow by the unexpected death of his son Eustace. Stephen had hoped to see Eustace crowned as king of England during his own lifetime but the Pope refused his permission and even placed England under an interdict for a time during the dispute.

Although Stephen had another surviving son (William, Count of Bolougne, who died in 1160), Matilda's son Henry arrived in England to wrest the throne from Stephen by force. War was averted by the Treaty of Wallingford made in November 1153 by which Stephen acknowledged Henry as his successor, thus establishing the Plantagenet dynasty. Stephen did not survive the agreement by a year, dying on October 25th, 1154.

Rumours were already in circulation that Stephen was the biological father of Henry before the Treaty of Wallingford by which he by-passed his acknowledged surviving son William. No evidence supporting this has ever emerged however.

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Henry, Bishop of Winchester
Third son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela, daughter of the Conqueror, and King Stephen's brother.

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Time-Line

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1096Birth of Stephen of Blois, nephew of Henry I, crowned King of England in 1135
1125Stephen of Blois marries Matilda de Boulogne (c.1095-1151), daughter of Comte Eustace III de Boulogne and Mary of Scotland
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1127.JanHenry I forces the magnates to accept his daughter Matilda as his heir
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1135.Dec.01Death of Henry I (Beauclerc).
Stephen of Blois accepted as king of England by the magnates depsite their previous oaths to Henry\'s daughter Matilda
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1135.Dec.25Stephen of Blois crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop William of Corbeil
[[[ or Dec 22nd ]]]
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1136Stephen ceded Cumberland to King David of Scotland
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1136Stephen repeals the forest laws, provides for immediate elections of bishops and abolishes the Danegeld
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1136King David of Scotland invades the North of England
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1136Stephen grants Carlisle to David of Scotland
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1136Stephen captures Bampton and exiles Robert of Bampton
1136.Feb.05David of Scotland forced to submit by Stephen
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1136.MarStephen revives the Easter court tradition
1136.Mar.22Crowning of Stephen\'s wife, Matilda of Boulogne
1136.AprRecognition of Stephen as King of England by Pope Innocent II
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1136.AprReturn to England of Robert, Earl of Gloucester (illigitimate half-brother of Matilda)
1136.Apr.26Stephen fall ill (-Apr.29) and the rumours of his death cause the rebellion of someof the magnates
1136.JulExeter beseiged by King Stephen and Baldwin de redvers exiled
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1136.SepGeoffrey of Anjou raids Normandy
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1136.Nov.21Death of William of Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury
1137David of Scotland threatens to invade Northumberland
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1137Death of 1108-1137 Louis VI the Fat of France (1108-). Louis VII becomes king (-1180)
1137King Stephen does homage to the King of France as Duke of Normandy
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1137.MarKing Stephen crosses to Normandy to enforce his claim to the duchy
His failure to capture the duchy started to lose him support amongst the magnates
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1137.JunTruce made between King Stephen and Henry of Anjou
1137.DecKing Stephen lays siege to Miles of Beauchamp at Bedford
1138Geoffrey of Anjou raids Normandy
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1138.Jan.10David of Scotland invades Northumberland, under the pretext of supporting Matilda in her claim to the throne against King Stephen
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1138.Feb.02Stephen and his army reach Northumberland
1138.MarGeoffrey Talbot seizes Hereford Castle
1138.AprKing Stephen destroys Hereford Castle
1138.Apr.08David of Scotland invades Northumberland and ravages the East Coast
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1138.May.22Robert, Earl of Gloucester, formally renounces his allegiance to Stephen in support of his illigitimate half-sister Matilda\'s claim to the throne
1138.Jun.15Hereford burned by Geoffrey Talbot
1138.AugStephen captures Dudley Castle, near Shrewsbury
1138.Aug.22Battle of the Standard: David of Scotland defeated by King Stephen
The Scots defeated by a force raised by Thurstan, Archbishop of York
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1138.Dec.13Election of Theobald of Bec as Archbishop of Canterbury
1139Davids son invested as Earl of Northumberland
1139Garrison left at Wallingford
1139Stephen captures South Cerney
1139.JanPope Innocent II declares the legitimacy of Stephen\'s rule after hearing charges of his usurpation of the Crown
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1139.Apr.09Peace made between David of Scotland and Stephen by a treaty signed at Durtham
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1139.JunStephen\\\'s arrest of Bishop Robert of Salisbury and his nephews, Bishop Alex of London, and Chancellor Roger, on questionable evidence of offense against the majesty of the King allienated the Church
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1139.Sep.30Matilda and her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou, land at Arundel in Sussex heralding the start of almost 20 years of the civil war known as The Anarchy
[[[ Matilda landed with Geoffrey of Anjou OR Robert of Gloucester ]]]
1139.OctMalmesbury Castle captured by King Stephen
1139.OctKing Stephen leaves a garrison at Devizes to check Trowbridge
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1139.OctGarrison at Wallingford defeated by Miles of Gloucester
1139.Oct.07Malmesbury burned by Robert fitz Hubert
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1139.Nov.07Worcester sacked by Miles of Gloucester
1139.Dec.11Death of Robert, Bishop of Salisbury
by 1139.DecHereford, South Cerney and Winchcomb captured by Miles of Gloucester
1140King Stephen forms an alliance with Louis VII of France
1140Rebellion of Bishop Nigel of Ely
but the Isle of Ely was captured by Stephen
1140Reginald of Dunstanville harasses Stephen\\\'s forces from Cornwall. He is defeated by Stephen
He is defeated by Stephen
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1140Capture of Robert fitz Hubert by John fitz Gilbert who was loyal to Robert of Gloucester
After a contest of wills, fitz Hubert is hung for not releasing Devizes to Earl Robert and Miles
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1140King Stephen purchases the submission of Devizes for a \\\'very large sums of money\\\'
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1140Stephen and Matilda negotiate for peace
1140Geoffrey de Mandeville created 1st Earl of Essex in reward for his services against the Empress Matilda
1140.Feb.06Death of Thurstan, Archbishop of York
1140.Mar.26Robert fitz Hubert recaptures Malmesbury and begins devastating the surrounding countryside, declaring himself independent of Stephen and Matilda and intent on seizing the country between Winchester and London
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1140.SepBishop Henry holds discussions with King Louis VII of France, Count Theobald, and \'many ecclesiastics\'
1140.SepRobert of Gloucester captures Nottingham
1140.DecStephen confers distinctions on Ranulf, Earl of Chester and William of Roumare
1140.DecRanulf and William seize Lincoln Castle by trickery
1140.DecStephen besieges Lincoln but Ranulf escapes to enlist the aid of Robert and Miles of Gloucester
1141.Feb.01Robert and Ranulf\'s forces arrive at Lincoln
1141.Feb.02Abandoned by his earls, King Stephen defeated and captured by Ranulf and Robert\'s forces at the battle of Lincoln
Ranulf and Robert\'s forces slaughter the towsfolk of Lincoln
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1141.Feb.09King Stephen brought to Bristol as Matilda\'s prisoner
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1141.Feb.17Matilda accepts the submission of Cirencester
1141.Mar.03Matilda recognized as lady and queen by Bishop Henry at Winchester
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1141.Apr.08Council of Winchester: ecclesiastical council convened by Bishop Henry to elect Matilda as Queen of England
The only known public appearance of William of Malmesbury
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1141.JunLondoners appeal to Matilda to repeal the harsh laws of Henry I and moderate her own demands. The furious Quuen devastates the outskirts of London to enforce her will but is forced to flee, first to Oxford and then to Gloucester when the Londoners rebel against her
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1141.JunBishop henry renews his allegiance to King Stephen having witnessed Matilda\'s rule
1141.Jun.24Matilda arrives in London toprepare for her coronation
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1141.JulMatilda\'s forces march on Winchester but Bishop Henry escapes to rally Stephen\'s forces
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1141.JulRanulf attempts to side first with Stephen, then with Matilda but is rebuffed by both
1141.JulMatilda de Boulogne, Stephen\'s Queen lays siege to the Empress Matilda at Winchester
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1141.SepRobert of Gloucester, held at Rochester, negotiates his own release in exchange for that of King Stephen
1141.Sep.14Forces of the Empress Matilda and Robert of Gloucester attempt to break out of Winchester
Earl Robert and King David captured by Queen Matilda\'s forces. King David bribes his way to freedom. Matilda flees to Ludgershall, Devizes, and finally to Gloucester
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1141.Nov.01King Stephen released from his imprisonment at Bristol in exchange for the freedom of Robert of Gloucester
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1141.Dec.07Henry, Bishop of Winchester, attempts to justify his changes in allegiance in The Anarchy
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1141.Dec.25King Stephen performs the coronation ceremony again at Canterbury to emphasize his sovereignty and is restored to all power and dignity
1142King Stephen travels to Northern England to stop a proposed tournament
possibly fearing the knightly sport of the tournay might erupt into a small-scale war
1142.MarKing Stephen falls ill returning from Northern England and rumours of his death abound
[[[ Easter ]]]
1142.JunMatilda attempts to bring her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou, to England to aid her
1142.JunRobert of Gloucester sails from Wareham to Normandy to personally request aid for Matilda\\\'s cause
He stays in Normandy for summer helping Geoffrey of Anjou capture ten Norman castles
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1142.JunKing Stephen seizes Wareham
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1142.JunKing Stephen destroys castles at Cirencester, Bampton, and Radcot on his way to Oxford
1142.Sep.26King Stephen attacks Matilda\'s headquarters and lays siege to Oxford
1142.OctGeoffrey of Anjou refuses to aid his wife, Matilda, sending instead their 9-year-old son Henry (later Henry II) with Earl Robert to inspire the magnates
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1142.OctEarl Robert lays siege to Wareham for Matilda
He captures the town after three weeks
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circa 1142.NovEarl Robert seizes the Isle of Portland and Lulworth in Dorset
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1142.DecEarl Robert summons Matilda\'s forces to assemble at Cirencester
1142.DecEmpress Matilda makes her famous escape from Oxford in the snow wearing white as a camouflage
1142.DecOxford surrenders to King Stephen
1143King Stephen devastates the countryside around Wareham, Dorset
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1143King Stephen gathers a huge army at Wilton, presumably to attack Bristol
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1143Earl Robert of Gloucester meets Stephen and Bishop Henry of Winchester at Wilton - Stephen and Henry are forced to retreat
William Martel, the king\'s steward and castellan of Sherborne prevents Stephen\'s capture, but is captured himself
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1143Bishop Henry returns to Winchester but William de Pont de l\'Arche holds the Castle for Matilda, and summons her forces to help him challenge the bishop\'s control of the city
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1143Robert son of Hildebrand is dispatched to aid William of Pont de l\'Arche at Winchester. Rather than aid him, Robert seduces his wife, imprisons William allegiance to King Stephen
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1143King Stephen arrests Geoffrey de Mandeville for treason at St Albans
Given the choice of execution or the surrender of the Tower of London and his Essex castles to the king, he chose his life
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1143.Sep.24Death of Pope Innocent II. The pro-Angevin Celestine II becomes pope
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1144Louis VII of France formally grants Henry of Anjou (Henry II of England) the Duchy of Normandy
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1144Geoffrey de Mandeville is released and embarks on plunder and devastation unparalleled even during the Anarchy
1144Geoffrey de Mandeville sacks and seizes Ramsey
1144Knights Templar take Geoffrey de Mandeville\'s body to London for burial
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1144Ranulf, Earl of Chester ravages the north of England capturing castles held by the King\'s supporters
1144The king captures Winchcomb Castle
1144Hugh Bigod plunders East Anglia
1144Miles of Gloucester lays heavy exactions on Robert, bishop of Hereford, refuses levies and has the bishop\'s lands ravaged causing his own excommunication
1144.Jan.20Geoffrey of Anjou captures Rouen in Normandy and assumes title of Duke of Normandy
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1144.Mar.08Death of Pope Celestine II. Lucius II becomes pope
Unlike Celestine II, Lucius II supports King Stephen
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1144.AugGeoffrey de Mandeville lays siege to Burwell Castle and is gravely wounded by an arrow
1144.Sep.16Death of the excommunicated Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, (b. before 1091) at Mildenhall, Suffolk
1144.Dec.24Death of Miles of Gloucester in a hunting accident
1145Geoffrey of Anjou conquers Arques and holds all of the duchy of Normandy
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1145.Feb.15Death of Pope Lucius II. Pro-Angevin Eugenius III becomes pope
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1147Matilda returned to Anjou after the death of her half-brother, Robert of Caen, Earl of Gloucester
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1151Death of Geoffrey of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and husband of the Empress Matilda
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1151.Jul.03Death of Matilda de Boulogne (c.1095-), wife of King Stephen, at Faversham
1153End of The Anarchy as Stephen, sufering from ill-health, accepts Matilda\'s son, Henry Plantagenet, as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford
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1153John Marshal fortifies Hamstead Marshall Castle near Newbury against King Stephen
His son, William the Marshal, is held hostage by the king as a result
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1153.AugDeath of Eustace, son of king Stephen
1154.Jan.13English magnates do homage to Henry
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1154.Apr.04Henry of Anjou returns to Normandy after the discovery of a plot by William to kill him
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1154.Oct.25Death of King Stephen of chronic flux of haemorroids or an heart attack at Dover.
Henry II becomes the first Plantagenet king of England (as settled by the Treaty of Wallingford the previous year)
As count of Anjou, Henry II possessed almost half of France as a vassal of the French King
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1160Death of Willaim, Count of Boulogne (son of King Stephen)

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HENRY I (1100-1135)
SINKING OF THE WHITE SHIP (1120)
HENRY II (1154-1189)

THE BARONS
MEDIEVAL BRITAIN
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ROYAL FORESTS
Stephen   encyclopedia4u.com
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HENRY I
  DESCENDANTS   University of Hull
WILKIPEDIA
 
EMPRESS MAUD or MATILDA
  THE ANARCHY

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BRISTOL

DORSET
Isle of Portland
The promontory was seized for Matilda about November 1142 by earl Robert of Gloucester.
Wareham
Changing hands between the two sides, the area around the town was laid waste by Stephen in 1143.

WILTSHIRE
Cricklade
The town sheltered Matilda during the Anarchy and was rewarded with its first charter in 1155 by her son, king Henry II.

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