King of England (1413-1422)
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Henry (1387-1422), Henry succeeded his father, Henry IV, as the second of three kings of England of the house of Lancaster, reigning from 1413 to 1422.

Henry was born on either August 9th or September 16th, 1387 to king Henry IV Bolingbroke by Mary de Bohum at Monmouth Castle in Wales.

During his father's exile in 1398, the young Henry was taken into the charge of the king, Richard II (1377-1399), who treated him kindly. When his father returned to England the following year, deposed Richard II who he imprisoned and possibly murdered and seized the throne as his own, the young Henry became hier to the throne.

In August 1400, the twelve-year-old prince accompanied his father to the north of England where Robert III of Scotland was raiding the borders and later to Wales to suppress the rebellion of Owen Glendower. Henry IV left his son at Chester as 'Prince of Wales' to deal with Glendower's rebellion, aided by Henry Percy, nicknamed 'Hotspur'.

In 1401, through lack of funds from Henry IV, Percy returned to the north to help the family fight against the Scots in the borders.

By 1403, the 16-year-old Prince was in command of his father's forces which suppressed the rebellion of 'Harry Hotspur' who was defeated and killed at the battle of Shrewsbury on July 21st.

The prince was almost killed by an arrow which lodged itself in his face during the battle. Over a period of several days after Henry recieved the injury, the royal physician devised a special tool with which to extract the arrow tip without doing further damage.

The prince would have fought with his visor up or absent so that he could shout commands and be visible to his army. The arrow which hit him below the right eye passed through the bones of the face to lodge in the back of the skull. Had the arrow been a direct hit, the bodkin would have passed straight through his head so it can be presumed that it had been deflected by armour into the prince's face.

The head of the arrow would have been purposely fixed to the shaft with a material such as wax so that any attempt to remove the arrow would cause the shaft to separate leaving the head embedded in the body. The safest way to remove the arrow would be to push it right through the body, ensuring that the head was removed but, in the case of the prince, this was impossible.

Unlike the common soldiers, wealthy or royal combatants such as prince Henry, heir to the throne, would have the best medical help available and, in this instance, it took the form of John Bradmore. Bradmore's first task was to open up the wound to reach the arrowhead. This he did by inserting a series of "tents", dowels of progressively larger diameter, wrapped in clean linen and soaked in honey. Honey had long been used to successfully treat wounds, even if the reasons for its actions were not known - like the spiderweb, it contains natural antibiotic properties and the mixture of sugars in honey seems to aid healing.

Meawhile he had a blacksmith make a special tool with which to extract the bodkin. The bodkin was forged from a solid piece of iron. The front was formed into a multi-faceted piercing tip while the rear was formed into a tube into which the shaft of the arrow was inserted. Bradmore's tool consisted of a pair of smooth tongs which, once carefully inserted into the tubular rear of the arrowhead, where screwed apart till they gripped its walls and allowed it to be gently extracted from the wound. Without the benefit of x-rays, the procedure was very hazardous, but obviously successful.

Having survived the injury, very much against the odds, Henry later died aged only thirty-five of dysentry. His face must have been considerably scarred by the wound but this was not mentioned during his lifetime for reasons of politics and, after his death, was not allowed to mar the reputation of the great warrior king.

It was Henry's skill on the battlefield which suppressed the rebellions of the early part of his father's reign (1399-1413) and, until 1408, the prince was occupied in dealing with the Welsh rebellion of Owain Glyndwr (anglicised as 'Owen Glendower').

The later years of Henry IV's reign were dominated by recurring acute boughts of a grave illness and intervening ill-health. As a result, the prince took and ever wider part in politics and government. From January 1410, the Prince of Wales had practical control of the government, aided by his uncles Henry (c.1377-1447) and Thomas Beaufort (the sons of John of Gaunt legitimised by Richard II in 1397).

The king and his son differed on both domestic and foreign policy and Henry IV had the prince dismissed from the council in November 1411.

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Henry's Reign

Henry succeeded to the throne on his father's death on March 20th, 1413. The new king had no embarassing past, no dangerous rivals and practical experience of government during his father's illness. The main problems which he had to deal with on his accession were to restore domestic peace, heal the schism in the Church and recover English prestige in Europe and he dealt with them all together.

The new king soon made it clear that he wished to rule a united kingdom were the differences of the past were forgotten and one of his first acts was to honourably reinter the remains of Richard II (1377-1399) who was deposed by his father.

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Henry IV of England   (1399-1413)
His father, whom he succeeded as king.

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1387Birth of prince Henry, later king Henry V of England, to Henry IV by Mary de Bohun
1398Exile and disinheritance of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster
Henry\\\'s son, the future king Henry V, taken into the charge of king Richard II who treated him kindly
Following the famous quarrel between the Dukes of Hereford and Norfolk, both were banished by the king
1399.Sep.30+Deposition of Richard II, last Plantagenet king of England, by Henry, Duke of Lancaster who ruled as Henry IV (-1413)
The imprisoned Richard was murdered, the first casualty of the Wars of the Roses
1400English administration of Wales conducted in the name of Henry, Prince of Walesfrom this year
1403.Jul.21The forces of Henry IV, led by his 16-year-old son Henry, defeated and killed Sir Henry Percy (Harry Hotspur) at Shrewsbury thus ending his rebellion
The prince is nearly killed by an arrow lodged in his face.
The Battle forms the climax of Shakespeare\'s play, Henry IV part 1
1405.JunKing Henry IV suffers and acute attack of illness
1406.AprKing Henry IV suffers and acute attack of illness
1408Suppression of the Welsh rebellion of Owain Glyndwr (anglicised as Owen Glendower)
Deealing with the rebellion had been placed in the hands of Prince Henry
1408.JunKing Henry IV suffers and acute attack of illness
1408.OctKing Henry IV suffers and acute attack of illness through the winter
1410.JanThe Prince of Wales effectively controls the governemnt of England aided by his uncles Henry and Thomas Beaufort because of the king\'s ill-health
1411Henry, Prince of Wales sends an expedition to France
1411.NovHenry IV dismisses the Prince of Wales because of their defferences on foreign and domestic policy
1412.DecKing Henry IV suffers and acute attack of illness
1413.Mar.20Death of Henry IV, king of England, from an illness which had plagued him since 1405. He was succeeded by his 25-year-old son as King Henry V
1413.AugAfter attempting to kidnap Charles VI of France, Jean Duc de Bourgogne, abandons Paris to tthe Armagnacs and Count Bernard's Gascons and flees to Burgundy
1414.Jan.10Lollards assemble in force at St Gile\'s Fields but are easily dispersed
1415.Oct.25Battle of Agincourt successfully concludes Henry V\\\'s French campaign of 1415
A larger campaign is mounted in 1417
1417Henry V mounts a French campaign larger than that of 1415
1421.Jan.06Henry V and Catherine spend Epiphany at Rouen - Henry demands more money from the Norman estates
1421.Jan.06+Henry V and Catherine travel through Calais to Dover
At Dover they are greeted with near hysterical joy
1421.Feb.23Catherine of Valois crowned Queen by the Archbishop of Canterbury
1421.Feb.23+Henry V and Catherine proceed on a royal progress visitng St Albans, Bristol, through Herefordshire, Shrewsbury, York, Lincoln, Norwich and Kings Lynn
1421.MarDauphin Charles makes the Earl of Buchan the Constable of France
1421.Mar.21Death of Thomas, Duke of Clarence, 2nd son of King Henry IV of England and brother of Henry V, at the Battle of Bague
1421.Mar.21Battle of Baug�: small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Henry V\\\'s brother, Thomas, Duke of Clarence in Normandy
or March 22nd
1421.AprHenry V recieves the news of the death of his brother, Duke Clarence
1421.MayParliament meets at Westminster and votes a tax of a fifteenth and a tenth from the clergy
1421.JunHenry V lands at Calais with 4,000 troops. He marches to Paris to relieve the Duke of Exeter, takes Dreaux and marches south into Beauce and takes Vendome and Beaugency. The army camps for 3 days before Orleans. Decamping, they march north taking Villeneuve-le-Roy and Rougemmont where the entire garrison is hanged and buildings destroyed
1421.OctHenry V lays seige to Meaux. 1/16 of the army die of disease during the long seige and Henry himself takes ill
1421.Dec.06Birth of Henry VI, king of England (1422-61 and 1470-71) to Henry V by Catherine of Valois at Windsor
1422.Mar.09The town of Meaux, beseiged since October, surrenders to Henry V while the garrison withdraws to the Market, a fortified suburb
1422.Aug.10Henry V transported to Vincennes by horse litter after he is unable to ride to Cosne-sur-Loire
He appoints his brother, John Duke of Bedford as provisional Regent of France (provided Philippe de Bourgogne does not want the office) and guardian of the young Henry VI and makes Gloucester Regent of England
1422.Aug.31Death of king Henry V of England of dysentry at Bois de Vincennes, aged 35. Succeeded by his infant son, Henry VI

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