HENRY VIII
(1491-1547) King of England (1509-1547)
Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
 Click here for more information

The second son of Henry VII, prince Henry was born in 1491.

Henry VII succeeded his father to the throne in 1509, aged 17 and a perfect Renaissance prince - an athlete, scholar and musician. He is probably best recalled by the popular imagination as the king of England who had six wives, split from the Roman Catholic Church and dissolved the monasteries and was a fat, bloated tyrant; Charles Dickens called the king "a spot of blood and grease on the history of England".

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleThe Church

Prince Henry was born on June 28th, 1491 at Placentia, the royal palace in Greenwich whose site is now occupied by the Royal Naval College. He was baptised in the parish church at Greenwich.

The prince Henry was baptised in the parish church at Greenwich by Fox, Bishop of Exeter and Lord Privy Seal. His godfathers were the earl of Oxford and Courtney, bishop of Winchester.

The young Prince Henry succumbed to a disease decribed as "la petite verolle", many writers in Tudor times thought that smallpox and measles were different manifestations of the same disease.

During the lifetime of his elder brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales (1486-1502), Henry was never expected to succeed his father to the throne of England and was brought up at Eltham Palace with his sisters. He escorted Catherine of Aragon during her marriage to Arthur at St Pauls Cathedral on the November 14th, 1501. It was only after Arthur's untimely death in 1502 that henry was recalled to the royal court from Eltham to be groomed for the royal succession.

Henry VIII succeeded his father, Henry VII (1485-1509), to the throne in 1509 at the age of 17.

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleThe Church

Henry VIII succeeded his father, Henry VII, to the throne in 1509 at the age of 17 as the second monarch of the House of Tudor. A perfect Renaissance prince, Henry was an athlete, scholar and musician; at first he preferred hunting and other passtimes to the ruling of the kingdom but soon became a strong king.

King Henry is perhaps best known popularly for his six wives, two of whom were executed by beheading (as were several of his ministers).

By the time of his death, the frugal Henry VII in 1509, had ammassed some £1-million in the royal treasury which Henry VIII inherited. This in itself was a vast sum at the time but Henry VIII was fabulously wealthy among the princess of Europe when he dissolved the monasteries after his rift with the Roman Catholic Church and disposed of their property. Most of the wealth was squandered.

Henry was ruthless and crushed rebellion savagely, despite this, he was an admired and respected monarch in what was a turbulant age.

The international pressures on Henry VIII were not much different from those on the government today.

Henry VIII instigated Britain's first standing Navy.

Eighteen Turkish baths, known as `stews', were built in Southwark during the Tudor period. Unfortunately, these soon came to be used as brothels leading to their suppression during the reign of King Henry VIII; it was proclaimed that "If there be any house wherein is kept and holden any hot-house or sweating-house, for ease and health of men, to which be resorting or conversant any strumpets or women of evil name or fame . . .", the house must be closed (see also Bathing).

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleThe Church

Catherine of Aragon   (1485-1536)
Anne Boleyn   (c.1501-1536)
Jane Seymour   (1509-1537)
Anne of Cleves   (1515-1557)
Catherine Howard   (1521-1542)
Catherine Parr   (1512-1548)

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleTime-Line
The Church

`DEFENDER OF THE FAITH'
The young Henry VIII wrote a book in
1521 which attacked the Protestant reformers for which the Pope gave him the title `Defender of the Faith'. This is reflected in the coinage of Henry's reign by the initials FID., DEF., or F.D.

THE DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTERIES
The Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII after his schism with the Roman Catholic Church (the monks owing their allegiance to the pope, not the crown) made him the richest king in Christiandom but, although the scale of the dissolution was drastic, attacks on monastic property were not unprecedented.

Introduction of Parish Registers in 1538

It was Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII's Vicar General, who made Parish Registers compulsory in 1538:

Item that you and every parson vicare or curate shall for every churche kepe one boke or register wherein ye shal write the day and yere of every weddyng christenyng and buryeng made within yore parishe and so every man succeeding you lykewise.GD-KENT-TCOSCOR-AR-1990-20

See also:   History of the Church  

BibliographyDefenceHits on this PageLinksLocally
PeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Act of Supremacy

The Act of Supremancy (entitled "An Act concerning the King's Highness to be supreme head of the Church of England and to have authority to reform and redress all errors heresies and abuses in the same") was passed by the Parliament on November 3rd, 1534 (26 Henry VIII c.1), and conferred on the King the title of supreme head of the Church of England, nullifying the authority of the Pope in England and giving the King the right to reform the church and to judge heresies;-

Be it enacted by authority of this present Parliament that the King our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England called Anglicana Ecclesia, and shall have and enjoy annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm as well the title and style thereof, as all honours, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits and commodities, to the said dignity of supreme head of the same Church belonging and appertaining. . .

. . . Henry VIII formally adopted the new style as head of the Anglican Church in the presence of the leading officers of state on January 15th, 1535.

An similar Act of Supremacy was passed by the Irish Parliament between October 13th and December 20th, 1536 making the monarch supreme head of the Church of Ireland.

Act of SupremacyBibliographyHits on this PageLinks
LocallyPeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Defence

Henry VIII instigated Britain's first standing Navy.

To defend the country against the danger of invasion from continental Europe and particularly from France, Henry VIII built some twenty castles along the South Coast. Examples are;-

Dorset
Poole Harbour
Brownsea Castle

On the southern extremity of Brownsea Island, to command shipping entering and leaving the narrow mouth of the harbour between Sandbanks and the Studland Peninsula. The castle burnt down in 1896 and was subsequently rebuilt.

Portland
Portland Castle

Portland Castle (1539) to the north of the headland, protecting the great natural harbour which is part of Weymouth Bay, cost less than £5,000 to build and is still in use. Designed for ordnance in times when archers were still important in warfare, it comprises a two-storey tower, a casement for the main battery and wings for garrison quarters.

Weymouth
Sandsfoot Castle

Built in 1539 to protect the great natural harbour which is part of Weymouth Bay from the north, is now a ruin.

Hampshire
Hurst Castle

Protecting the Solent.

Kent
Deal
Deal Castle

nr. Deal.

Sandown Castle

nr. Deal, now washed away by the sea.

Walmer Castle

nr. Deal, the official residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyThe ChurchTime-Line
People

HENRY'S SIX WIVES
CATHERINE OF ARAGON   (1485-1536)

A Spanish princess, Catherine was the widow of Arthur, Henry VIII�s older brother, who died at Ludlow Castle in April 1502. Henry had special dispensation from the Pope to marry Catherine, which he did in June 1509, soon after becoming king. Catherine was a devoted wife but of the many children that they had, only a daughter, Mary, survived. Henry tried to divorce her but the new Pope would not agree so Henry made himself the head of the Church in England. Catherine died at Kimbolton in Huntingdon on January 7th, 1536.

ANNE BOLEYN   (c.1501-1536)

Anne was the daughter of England�s ambassador to France and had been maid of honour at Catherine of Aragon�s wedding. Henry VIII separated from Catherine in 1531 , and, as soon as he was divorced in 1533, married Anne Boleyn. They had a daughter, Elizabeth in 1533. Anne had many enemies at the royal court and was accused of adultery. She was beheaded at the Tower of London in May 1536.

JANE SEYMOUR   (c.1507-1537)

Jane had been lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn. Henry noticed her on a visit to her father, Sir John Syemour, at Wolf Hall in September 1535 and wanted to marry her, which he did in May 1536. Jane gave birth to Edward, the son and heir that Henry wanted so badly, on October 12th, 1537, but died 12 days later. Henry treated the Seymour family with favour after her death; when Edward became king at 9 years of age his uncle, Edward Seymour, became Lord Protector, his other uncle, Thomas Seymour, was Lord High Admiral.

ANNE OF CLEVES   (1515-1557)

Henry VIII was betrothed to Anne of Cleves for political reasons; alone in a Catholic Europe, Henry wanted an alliance with Anne�s father, John of Cleves. Henry VIII and Anne were married in January, 1540, but politics soon changed and the marriage became an embarrassment to the monarch within a few months. Henry had the marriage annulled in July 1540 and Anne received a large allowance on condition that she did not leave England. She died at Chelsea on July 16th, 1557.

CATHERINE HOWARD   (1521-1542)

Henry married Catherine Howard in July 1540. Catherine was accused of having affairs with various friends before her marriage to the king and was condemned to death. Henry seems to have been genuinely upset at the turn of events. Catherine was beheaded at the Tower of London on February 13th, 1542.

CATHERINE PARR   (1512-1548)

The last of Henry VIII�s wives, Catherine was married to him in July 1543. She was well educated and taught all three of Henry�s children. She also persuaded him to revere his earlier decision to exclude Mary and Elizabeth from the succession to the throne. Henry died on January 28th, 1547 and Catherine married Thomas Seymour shortly after Henry�s death. They lived for a while at Chelsea Manor before moving to Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire where Catherine died on September 7th, 1548, a few days after giving birth to Seymour�s daughter.

Family
Arthur, Prince of Wales  

It was the untimely death in 1502 of Henry's elder brother, Arthur, who was being prepared to succeed to the crown which caused his recall to court as the royal heir.

CHILDREN
Edward VI   (1537-1553), King of England (1547-1553)

Henry's only son by Jane Seymour, succeeded to the throne as a sickly child, only nine years old.

Mary I   (1515-1558), Queen of England (1553-1558)

Attempted unsuccessfuly to reverse the Reformation and the dissolution of the monasteries.

Elizabeth I   (1533-1603), Queen of England (1558-1603)

Secured the Reformation and peace within her realm, her long reign frequently referred to as the "Elizabethan Age".

THE SEYMOURS
Jane Seymour   (c.1507-1537)

Henry's third wife who he married in May 1536. Jane gave birth to Edward, the son and heir that Henry wanted so badly, on October 12th, 1537, but died 12 days later.

Henry treated the Seymour family with favour after her death; when Edward became king at 9 years of age his uncle, Edward Seymour, became Lord Protector, while his uncle, Thomas Seymour, was Lord High Admiral.

EDWARD SEYMOUR   (1506-1552)

His sister, Jane, married King Henry VIII in 1536. As the Earl of Hertford became a member of the council of regency which was formed on the accession of King Edward VI and was elected Lord Protector.

John Dudley   (1501-1553)

Toppled and succeeded Somerset as Lord Protector during the reign of Henry's son and successor, Edward VI, and attempted to hold onto power on the king's death by installing Lady Jane Grey on the throne.

HENRY BRANDON, Earl of Lincoln (1516 - 1534) the king's cousin.

HIGH OFFICES
 
CHANCELLORS

ELIZABETH BARTON,   'The Holy Maid of Kent ', executed for her ill prophecies on the consequences of Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

Thomas Linacre, Royal physician
  founder of the Royal College of Physicians

John Leland, the King's chaplain and later antiquary.

THE SEYMOURS
Sir JOHN SEYMOUR
  the hereditary warden of Savernake Forest in Wiltshire.

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleThe Church
Time-Line

This time-line has been generated for this page from our general time-line
which you can view by clicking here or on the dates in the left-hand column.

To view links to related pages, click here

1397By a charter, Richard II legitimises the children of John of Gaunt by his long-standing mistress and 3rd wife (1394-), Katharine Swynford
Founding the house of Beaufort from whom Henry VII who founded the House of Tudor was descended
BAAAGDJC BAAAGBXD
1403.Jul.21The forces of Henry IV, led by his 16-year-old son Henry, defeated and killed Sir Henry Percy (Harry Hotspur) at Shrewsbury thus ending his rebellion
The prince is nearly killed by an arrow lodged in his face.
The Battle forms the climax of Shakespeare\'s play, Henry IV part 1
BAAAGEEV BAAAGEEW BAAAGEEX BAAAGEEY BAAAGEFP BAAAGEFQ
1406.Mar.01Henry IV calls parliament to assemble
BAAAGBXJ BAAAGEEV
1406.Dec.22Henry IV dismissed parliament - the longest parliament to have sat in Mediaeval England
BAAAGBXJ BAAAGEEV
1413Henry Wardlaw, Bishop of St Andrews, founded St Andrews University
1413.Mar.20Death of Henry IV, king of England, from an illness which had plagued him since 1405. He was succeeded by his 25-year-old son as King Henry V
BAAAGEEV BAAAGCCV BAAAGEEY BAAAGDFZ
circa 1416Prince Henrique (Henry), the Navigator, of Portugal establishes a naval base and a school of navigation at Sagres
Setting the foundations for Portugal's rise as a major sea power; master of the Order of Christ, he sponsors numerous expeditions to round Africa to the East Indies
1427Henry the Navigator sent an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Gran Canaria for Portugal
1440Henry the Navigator sent out an expedition commanded by Ant�o Gon�alves and Nuno Trist�o which brought back 12 captives
1444Henry the Navigator sent out an expedition of exploration commanded by Gon�alo de Sintra
1455Alvise da Cadamosto entered the service of Prince Henry the Navigator
1457.Jan.28Birth of Henry Tudor (the future King Henry VII), earl of Richmond, to Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort.
BAAAGBRG BAAAGDKP BAAAGEIB
1460Death of Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator
BAAAGCRH
1471.MayLancastrians badly defeated at the Battle of Tewkesbury; Jasper Tudor and the young Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) sought refuge in the duchy of Brittany
Margaret of Anjou imprisoned and her son slain
BAAAGBRG BAAAGBKP BAAAGCRG BAAAGCRH BAAAGEFP BAAAGEFQ
1483Henry, duke of Buckingham, rebelled against Richard III
BAAAGCQF BAAAGBKP
1485Henry VII becomes monarch by battle establishing the House of Tudor and ending the Wars of the Roses
BAAAGDKP BAAAGBTJ BAAAGEFP BAAAGEFQ BAAAGEIB
1485.Aug.08Henry, Earl of Richmond, (later Henry VII) landed at Mill Bay in Milford Haven, Pembrokshire, Wales, and started his advance to London
BAAAGBRG BAAAGBKA BAAAGDKP BAAAGDKN
1485.Aug.22Battle of Bosworth Field: Lancastrian Henry, Earl of Richmond, (later Henry VII) defeats and kills Richard III (last of the Plamtagenet Kings) and the Yorkists
John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, flees the battlefield but is captured later
BAAAGCQF BAAAGBRG BAAAGDKP BAAAGEFP BAAAGEFQ BAAAGEIB
1485.Oct.30Henry VII crowned king of England
BAAAGDKP BAAAGBRG BAAAGBRH BAAAGEIB
1485.NovHenry VIIs title recognised by parliament
BAAAGBXJ BAAAGDKP
1485.Dec.16Birth of Katherine of Aragon, youngest daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile (Spain), the wife of King Henry VIII
BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL BAAAGEFM BAAAGEIB
1486.Sep.19Birth of Arthur, Duke of Cornwall, eldest son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
BAAAGEIB BAAAGCCK
1487Henry VII revives the Court of the Star Chamber to try unlawful barons
1489Treaty of Medina del Campo; Katherine of Aragon betrothed to Prince Arthur of England
BAAAGCDB BAAAGBRG BAAAGEFL BAAAGEIB
1491.Jun.28Birth of Prince Henry (later Henry VIII) to Henry VII at Greenwich
BAAAGEIB
1501.Nov.14Arthur, Prince of Wales married to Catherine of Aragon
BAAAGBKA BAAAGCCK BAAAGCDB BAAAGBRG BAAAGEFL BAAAGEHI BAAAGEIB
1502.Apr.02Death of Arthur, Prince of Wales, at Ludlow Castle. His brother Henry becomes heir to the throne
Reluctant to return the widowed Katherine of Aragon\'s dowery, Henry VII started negotiations with Aragon and Castile for her marriage to Henry
BAAAGBKA BAAAGCDB BAAAGCCK BAAAGEFL BAAAGEFM BAAAGBRG BAAAGEHI BAAAGEIB
1503.JunBetrothal of Katherine of Aragon to Prince Henry (VIII)
BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL BAAAGEIB
circa 1508The king begins to employ Thomas Wolsey in diplomatic service
It is probably about this time Wolsey made the well-known journey to Flanders as special envoy to the Emperor Maximilian
BAAAGBRG BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1509.Apr.22Death of Henry VII, his son succeeds to the Crown as Henry VIII, aged 17
BAAAGBRG BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL BAAAGBRH BAAAGCLM BAAAGEKW
1509.Jun.11Marriage of King Henry VIII to Katherine of Aragon
BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL
1509.Jun.24Catherine of Aragon crowned Queen
BAAAGEIB BAAAGCDB
1509.Jun.29Death of Margaret, Countess of Ricmond & Derby (1443-), mother of King Henry VII who claimed his right to the throne of England through her
BAAAGBRG BAAAGBRH
1511Thomas Wolsey appointed to the Privy Council
BAAAGEKW BAAAGDDK
1511.NovTreaty of Westminster: Henry and Ferdinand II pledge mutual help against their common enemy, France
1511.Nov.13England joins the Holy League initially composed of Spain, Venice and the Papacy
BAAAGEKW
1512Navarre south of the Pyranees is annexed to Castile by Ferdinand
The remainder (Lower Navarre) remains independent until its ruler Henry III became Henry IV of France and it is absorbed into France
BAAAGBKY BAAAGEFL BAAAGEFM
1512Henry VIII sends an army to France under Lord Dorset on an unsuccessful campaign
BAAAGEKW
1513Ferdinand objects to the marriage of his grandson, Charles of Flanders, to Mary, sister of Henry VIII, abandons Henry and makes peace with France
BAAAGEKW BAAAGBKY BAAAGEIB
1513Death of Pope Julius II
His death results in the break-up of the Holy League
1513.JunExpedition to France: English capture Terouenne and Tournay, the French defeated at Guinegate (the battle of Spurs)
Organised by Thomas Wolsey who accompanied the King. Wolsey was followed by a train of two hundred gentlemen
BAAAGEKW BAAAGBKY BAAAGEIB
1513.Aug.16Battle of the Spurs: English army wins over the French at Th�rouanne
1513.Sep.09English forces under the Earl of Surrey defeat James IV of Scotland at the Battle of Flodden Fields
The battle results in over ten thousand dead, James IV of Scotland among them
BAAAGEFP BAAAGEFQ BAAAGEKC BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1514Trinity House founded by King Henry VIII
Initially it was responsible for supplying coastal pilots, later for building and maintenance of lighthouses
BAAAGEIB
1514.Feb.06Papal bull appoints Thomas Wolsey Bishop of Lincoln
Wolsey named him Bishop of Tournay by the Pope at Henry\\\'s request for his services in the French campaign of 1513 but never took possession surrendering his claim for an annual pension - the bishopric was recompense
BAAAGEKW
1514.AugPeace signed between England and France
Louis XII agrees to increase the pension the French are paying in reparations
BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1514.SepThomas cromwell succeeds Cardinal Bainbridge as Archbishop of York
BAAAGEKW
1514.OctMarriage of Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, and Louis XII of France
(the marriage arranged by Wolsey)
BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1515Death of Louis XII; succeeded by Francis I as king of France
BAAAGBKY BAAAGEFL BAAAGEKW
1515Henry VIII establishes the Royal Workshops producing armour at Greenwich
ehq BAAAGEHQ
1515Francis I wins victory at Marignano, Italy, regaining Milan
1515Parliament, the House of Lords filled with clergy, refused to renew the Criminous Clerks Act (stating that hangers-on to clergy should be tried in the Kings Court instead of church courts)
BAAAGBXJ BAAAGEKW
1515.Sep.10Thomas Cromwell made a cardinal by Pope Leo X
BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1515.Dec.24Thomas Wolsey becomes Lord Chancellor of England
Wolsey has attained the highest dignities, both spiritual and temporal, of any subject
BAAAGEKW BAAAGEIB
1516Death of Ferdinand; Charles recieves Naples and Spain
1516.Feb.18Birth of the future Mary I to Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon at Greenwich Palace
BAAAGCAB BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL
1518Treaty of London: Wolsey secures an alliance with France and Spain and the Emperor Maximilian (nominally to check the Turks), ensuring peace in W Europe
Turnay given up in return for cash payment from Francis I
BAAAGEKW BAAAGBKY
1519.JanDeath of Maximilian I (1493-); his grandson Charles V (king of Spain from 1516) inherits Hapsburg lands and is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, aged 19
Charles rules Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and parts of Italy
BAAAGEKW
1520.FebWolsey arranges the meeting of Henry VIII and Francis at the English castle at Guisnes in Calais
BAAAGCCR BAAAGEKW
1520.MayCharles V makes state visit to Calais to meet Henry VIII
1520.Jun.07Field of Cloth of Gold: meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France is spectacular, continuing for 3 weeks with each monarch trying to outdo the other in splendor - it yielded no results and Francis failed to secure an alliance with Henry VIII
one of the most expensive charades ever staged in history
BAAAGBKY BAAAGEKW
1520.JulEnglish court hosts a banquet for Charles V in Calais to the fury of Francis of France
BAAAGCCR
1521Henry VIII wrote a book attacking the Protestant reformers (for which the Pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith
BAAAGDLY
1521Alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
BAAAGEKW
1521Abolition of the office of Lord High Constable
BAAAGBXO BAAAGEHT
circa 1521Birth of Catherine Howard, future 5th wife of King Henry VIII
BAAAGEKZ
1522Wolsey raises money by benevolences
BAAAGBTY BAAAGEKW
1523Unsuccessful expedition to France in alliance with Charles
Wolsey demanded parliament to grant a property tax of 20% to pay for the campaign
BAAAGEKW
1523Parliament refuses Wolsey\'s demand of a property tax of 20% for the French Campaign
Wolsey came to the house personally, disrupting the debate. Parliament granted 10%
BAAAGBTY BAAAGEKW
1523Thomas Wolsey made Prince-Bishop of Durham
BAAAGEKW
1525Dissolution of the minor religious houses by Thomas Cromwell as agent of Cardinal Wolsey
To provide the endowments for Wolseys foundations at Oxford and Ipswich
BAAAGCCI BAAAGEKW
1525Princess Mary goes to Ludlow Castle (-1528)
BAAAGCAB
1525Tyndal\'s Bible
BAAAGCBT
1526Anne Boleyn catches the eye of Henry VIII
BAAAGEKX
1527Alliance with France
Henry VIII considering divorce from Catherine of Aragon sought to make the papacy independant of her nephew, Charles V
BAAAGBKY BAAAGEKW
1527Henry VIII proposes marriage to Anne Boleyn who agrees after some hesitation
BAAAGEKX
1529The committees of the Star Chamber established by Wolsey to hear cases involving the poor become known as the Court of Requests
BAAAGEKW
1529.Jun.18Court to hear the case of the King\'s divorce from Katharine by Cardinal Campeggio and Wolseysits at Blackfriars
BAAAGEKW BAAAGCDB
1529.Nov.22Wolsey forced to sign a deed confessing that he had incurred a praemunire and surrendering all his vast possessions to the king
BAAAGEKW
1530Thomas Cromwell enters the service of Henry VIII
BAAAGCCI
1530Thomas Cromwell sworn into the King\'s (Privy) Council
BAAAGCCI
1530.Nov.04Commissioners from the king arrest Wolsey at York on a charge of high treason
BAAAGEKW BAAAGBZE
1531Appearance of Halley\\\'s Comet
BAAAGBKG BAAAGBKN
1531League of Schmalkalde founded to resist any attempt by Charles V to put down the Reformation by force
15318,000 women marched through the streets of London in an attempt to lynch Anne Boleyn
BAAAGDKN BAAAGEKX
1531.JulHenry VIII exiles his first wife, Katherine of Aragon, fromcourt - she moves to Kimbolton castle
BAAAGCDB
1532Henry VIII creates Anne Boleyn Marquess of Pembroke
The first time a woman had ever been created a peer in her own right
BAAAGEKX
1532Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII sleep together for the first time Calais
BAAAGEKX BAAAGCCR
1533Marriage of Henry VIII to Katherine of Aragon declared null
BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL
1533.Jan.25Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn in secret, either at York Place or the Palace of Westminster
BAAAGEKX
1533.Jun.01Coronation of Anne Boleyn
BAAAGEKX
1533.Jul.01Excommunication of Henry VIII
1533.Sep.07Birth of Princess Elizabeth (I) (-1603) to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn at the palace of Placentia in Greenwich
BAAAGCLM BAAAGEKX
1533.Sep.10Christening of the future Elizabeth I. Henry VIII so dissapointed she was not a son that he does not attend
BAAAGCLM
1533.Nov.25Marriage of Henry Fitzroy, illigitimate son of Henry VIII, to Mary Howard
BAAAGEKZ
1534John Leland set off on his ten-year tour of England
1534Thomas Cromwell becomes Secretary to Henry VIII and Master of the Rolls
BAAAGCCI
1534Act of Succession: invalidates the marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon and excludes Princess Mary from the succession
The first of three Acts of Succession passed during the reign of Henry VIII
BAAAGCAB
1534Treasons Act; made words or refusal to plead treasonable as well as overt ects
BAAAGCCI BAAAGBZE
1534.Mar.15Final severance of England from Rome
1534.Mar.30King Henry VIII divorces his first wife, Katherine of Aragon
BAAAGCDB BAAAGEFL
1534.May.11Henry VIII makes peace with Scotland
BAAAGEKC
1534.Sep.25Death of Pope Clement VII, succeeded by Pope Paul III
1534.Nov.03Act of Supremacy; Henry VIII splits from Rome, Parliament establishes the Church of England declares the English monarch its head and protector
Subjets are required to swear an oath of loyalty and reject Papal authority (churchmen who refuse the oath such as Sir Thomas Moore are executed)
BAAAGBXJ BAAAGCBT BAAAGCCI
1535Execution John Fisher
1535Thomas Cromwell created Vicar-General, effectively a dictator in matters ecclesiastical
BAAAGCCI BAAAGCBT
1535First printed Bible in English is dedicated to Henry VIII but printed abroad
BAAAGCJA BAAAGCBT
1535.Jan.15Henry VIII formally accepts the style as head of the Anglican Church
BAAAGCBT
1535.Jun.06Execution of Thomas More, aged 57
1536Act of Union between England and Wales
Wales incorporatedw with England; Welsh with same rights as English; English land laws applied to Wales
BAAAGBKA BAAAGDKJ BAAAGEIA
1536Dissolution of the minor Monastic houses supervised by Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII\'s Vicar General
BAAAGCCI
1536Thomas Cromwell becomes Lord Privy Seal and created 1st Baron Cromwell of Oakham
BAAAGCCI
1536Parliamentary election; Henry VIII requests the re-election of the previous members
BAAAGBXJ
1536Coverdale\'s Bible
BAAAGCBT
1536Parliament gives Henry VIII the power to regulate the successsion
BAAAGDLZ
1536.Jan.02King Henry VIII falls to the ground while jousting asnd his armoured horse falls on him - he loses conciousness for 2 hours
1536.Jan.07Death Katherine of Aragon, the first wife of King Henry VIII, at Kimbolton in Huntingdon
She was buried in Peterborough Cathedral
BAAAGCDB BAAAGCAB
1536.Jan.29Anne Boleyn gives birth to a still-born son
BAAAGEKX
by 1536.MarEdward Seymour, eldest brother of Jane Seymour, knighted and appointed a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber
BAAAGDGI
1536.Apr.14Dissolution of the Reformation Parliament
BAAAGBXJ
1536.MayAnne Boleyn accused of treason
On charges of having used witchcraft to trap Henry VIII into marriage; enticing 5 men into adulterous affairs with her; of causing the king bodily harm and of conspiring to effect his death
BAAAGEKX BAAAGBZE BAAAGCQN
1536.May.02Anne Boleyn arrested and taken to the Tower of London
BAAAGEKX
1536.May.15Trial and conviction of Anne Boleyn
BAAAGEKX
1536.May.17Marriage of Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn annuled
BAAAGEKX
1536.May.19Execution of Anne Boleyn (1507-), the second wife of King Henry VIII
BAAAGCAB BAAAGEKX
1536.May.30Marriage of King Henry VIII to Lady Jane Seymour
BAAAGDGG BAAAGCAB BAAAGDGI
1536.Jun.04Lady Jane Seymour publicly declared as queen
Edward Seymour made Viscount Beauchamp
BAAAGDGG BAAAGDGI
1536.Jul.01Mary and Elizabeth declared illegitimate by Parliament
BAAAGCAB BAAAGCLM BAAAGBXJ
1536.Jul.12Death of the humanist from Rotterdam, Desiderius Erasmus (c1466-), in Freiburg, aged 69
1536.Jul.22Death of Henry Fitzroy
1536.Oct.06William Tyndale condemned for heresy at Vilvorde Castle near Brussels and strangled
BAAAGCBT
1536.Oct.09Start of the Pilgrimage of Grace; a Northern rising caused by religious grievances
BAAAGCBT
1537Mathew\'s Bible
BAAAGCBT
1537Hans Holbein the Younger paints the Whitehall mural
The painting is an effort to create a popular image of Henry VIII following the break with Rome
1537.Oct.12Birth of Prince Edward to King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
Jane Seymour died a few days after the birth
BAAAGDGR BAAAGDGG BAAAGDGI
1537.Oct.24Death of Jane Seymour
BAAAGDGR BAAAGDGG BAAAGDGI
1538Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIIIs Vicar General, made the keeping of Parish Registers compulsory
BAAAGCCI paris
1538Hnery VIII categorically refused to concede the three reforms demanded by the Lutheran envoys hindering the political and theological union between England and the Lutheran princes of Germany sought by Cromwell
BAAAGCCI
1538Marriage of James V of Scotland to the French Mary of Guise
BAAAGEKC
1538Execution of Henry Pole
1538Execution of Exeter
1538Execution of Montague
1539Dissolution of the major Monastic houses supervised by Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII\'s Vicar General
BAAAGCCI
1539Thomas cromwell made Lord Great Chamberlain
BAAAGCCI
1539Treaty of Toledo: ends conflict between Francis I and Charles V
1539Cranmer\'s Bible, The Great Bible, ordered to be read in churches
BAAAGCBT
1539Statute of Six Articles; burning for denying Transubstantiation; communion in one kind; celibacy of the clergy; obligation of monastic vows; masses for the dea and auricular confession
BAAAGCBT
1539Parliament gives Henry VIII\\\'s proclamations the force of law
BAAAGBXJ
1540Thomas Cromwell created Earl of Essex
BAAAGCCI
1540.Jan.06Marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne of Cleves at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich
BAAAGCCI BAAAGEKY
1540.May.19Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle imprisoned in the Tower of London on suspicion of treason by plotting to betray Calais to the French
BAAAGDGQ BAAAGCCR
1540.Jul.09Marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne of Cleves annulled
BAAAGCCI BAAAGEKY
1540.Jul.18Marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine Howard at Oatlands Palace in Surrey ]or 28th?[
BAAAGCCI BAAAGEKZ
1540.Jul.28Execution of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, on a charge of treason at Tower Hill, London
BAAAGCCI
1541Henry VIII assumes title of King of Ireland, and Head of the Church in Ireland
BAAAGBKD BAAAGCBT
1541Execution of Margaret, Countess of Salisbury
BAAAGBHX
1541.Oct.18Death of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII
1541.Nov.09Catherine Howard is sent to the Tower of London
BAAAGEKZ
1542Statute against witchcraft (-1547); invokes the death penalty for invoking or conjuring an evil spirit
BAAAGCXN BAAAGCQN
1542.Feb.13Execution of Catherine Howard on charges of adultery
BAAAGEKZ
1542.Nov.25Battle of Soloway: English victory over invading Scottish army
BAAAGEKC
1542.Dec.14Death of James V of Scotland; succeeded by his infant daughter Mary (b. Dec 7th or 8th) with James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (next in line to the throne), as regent (-1554)
BAAAGEKC BAAAGEKT
1543Wales divided into 12 counties; counties and boroughs send MPs to parliament
BAAAGBKA BAAAGBXJ
1543First burning of Protestants by the Spanish Inquisition
1543.May.24Death of the astronomer Copernicus, aged 70, shortly after the publication of his heliocentric theory
BAAAGEIB
1543.JulTreaties of Greenwich: 6-month-old Mary, Queen of Scots, promised in marriage to Prince Edward, the son of Henry VIII in 1552 and for their heirs to inherit the kingdoms of Scotland and England
BAAAGEKT BAAAGDGR BAAAGCLM BAAAGCLJ
1543.Jul.12Marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine Parr
1543.Nov.20Death of the painter Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98�)
Famous miniature painter in London during Henry VIII\'s reign
BAAAGDKN
1544Act of Succession: provides that Princess Mary might succeed to the throne if Edward dies without issue
The last of 3 Acts of Succession passed in the reign of Henry VIII
BAAAGCAB BAAAGDGR
1544War with France
BAAAGBKY
1544Treaty of Crespy-en-Valois: ends two year conflict between Charles V and Francis I
1544.MayHenry VIII begins his rough wooing, a series of raids on Scottish territory, etc. (-June 1551), attempting impose the marriage to his son Edward VI on Mary, Queen of Scots
BAAAGEKC BAAAGDGR BAAAGEKT
1545Sinking of the Mary Rose and Roger Grenville in the Solent off Portsmouth
BAAAGEIB BAAAGGAM
1545.JulBattle of the Solent: French fleet enters the Solent intending to destroy the English fleet and invade the Isle of Wight
BAAAGBKY BAAAGBFI BAAAGEIB
1546.Feb.18Death of Martin Luther at Eisleben (where he was born), aged 63
BAAAGCBT BAAAGEIB
1546.Jun.07Peace of Ardres; ends two years of conflict between Henry VIII and Francis I
BAAAGEIB
1547.Jan.28Death of King Henry VIII, aged 55; Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset becomes Lord Protector in the name of the 9-year-old King Edward VI
BAAAGCEE BAAAGBHZ BAAAGCLM BAAAGCBT BAAAGCAB BAAAGDGQ BAAAGDGI
1547.Jan.28Viscount Lisle one of the executors of the will of Henry VIII
BAAAGDGQ
by 1547City of London levies taxes for poor relief
Such tax levied nationally in 1572 with compulsion imposed on local authorities by 1576
BAAAGBWS BAAAGBTY BAAAGDKN BAAAGDGR
1551.JunEnd of raids on Scottish territory, etc., started as Henry VIII\'s rough wooing in 1544
The campaign is reckoned to have cost �500,000 apart from its cost in human life
BAAAGEKC BAAAGEKT BAAAGDGR
1557.Jul.16Death of Anne of Cleves in London
BAAAGEKY
1558.Nov.17Death of Queen Mary I, her half-sister succeeded to the crown as Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn
Her reign is marked by the rise of England as a sea-power and a flourishing of the arts, particularly literature and drama
00000000 BAAAGCLM BAAAGCBT BAAAGCAB BAAAGEKU BAAAGEKX
1593Henry IV of France becomes Catholic
BAAAGBKY
1899.Sep.14Henry Bliss becomes 1st automobile fatality
(In New York)

Year   Word/Phrase    
Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LocallyPeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Links

Links to Other Pages on this Site

EDWARD VI
HENRY VII
ROYAL NAVY

HOUSE OF TUDOR:   Henry VII     Henry VIII     Edward VI     Mary I     Elizabeth I      

Links to Other Sites

. . . . . the inclusion of these links to other sites is for the interest and convenience of visitors to this site only and does not imply any endorsement of the products or services offered by the individuals or organisations involved nor the accuracy of the information contained therein . . . . .


 

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksPeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Locally

HATFIELD PALACE   Hatfield Palace was maintained by Henry VIII as a home for his children; Elizabeth was brought up there from the age of three months old and learned of her accession to the throne there.

LONDON

TOWER OF LONDON   During Henry VII's reign the Tower of London fell out of favour as a royal palace as the monarch preferred the palace in Whitehall. The armoury and mint took over life at the Tower as did the guarding of an increasing number of prisoners of the state. Two of Henry's six wives, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were executed by beheading at the Tower.

GREENWICH PALACE   Henry VIII was born at Greenwich Palace and, on his accession to the throne, he made it his chief residence. It was at the palace that he married Katharine of Aragon and it was also there that their daughter Mary (later to become Queen Mary I) was born. Princess Elizabeth was born there; her mother Anne Boleyn was arrested there; and Henry married Anne of Cleves at the palace.

SURREY

HAMPTON COURT PALACE   This was Henry's favourite palace on the river Thames where he spent much of his time.

SUSSEX

ANNE OF CLEVES HOUSE   The house in Lewes, Sussex, where Anne of Cleves, Henry's fourth wife, lived after her divorce from him is now a museum.

Links to Other Pages on this Site

 

Links to Other Sites

. . . . . the inclusion of these links to other sites is for the interest and convenience of visitors to this site only and does not imply any endorsement of the products or services offered by the individuals or organisations involved nor the accuracy of the information contained therein . . . . .

 

Act of SupremacyDefenceHits on this PageLinksLocally
PeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Bibliography

The Six Wives of Henry VIII
  by Antonia Fraser (paperback ISBN 0749314095)

The Six Wives of Henry VIII
  by Alison Weir, publisher
Ballantine Books, New York, 1992

Recommend a Book for this Page

The Six Wives of Henry VIII
  by Alison Weir (1991), The Bodley Head, 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 2SA   ISBN 0-370-31396-8

The Wives of Henry VIII
  by M.A.S. Hume (1905)

Assertio Septum Sacramentorum Adversus Martinus Lutherus
  published 1521, edited by O'Donovan, New York, 1908
  - contains Henry's own views on matrimony

Acts of the Privy Council of England
  (32 volumes)   edited by John Roche Dasent, HMSO (1890-1918)

Calendar of Letters & Papers, Foreign & Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII
  (21 volumes in 33 parts)   edited by J.S. Brewer, James Gairdner & R. Brodie, (HMSO, 1862-1932)

Calendar of Letters, Despatches & State Papers Relating to Negotiations Between England & Spain, Preserved in the Archives at Simancas and Elsewhere
  (17 volumes)   edited by G.A. Bergenroth, P. de Goyangos, G. Mattingley, R. Tyler, et al., HMSO (1862-1965)

Calendar of State Papers & Manusripts Relating to English Affairs Preserved in the Archives of venice & in Other Libraries of Northern Italy
  (7 volumes)   edited by L. Rawdon-Brown, Cavendish Bentinck, et al., HMSO (1864-1947)

State Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII
  (11 volumes)   (Record Commissioners, 1831-1852) Published under the Authority of Her Majesty's Commission

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceHits on this Page
LinksLocallyPeopleThe Church

Act of SupremacyBibliographyDefenceLinksLocally
PeopleThe ChurchTime-Line
Hits on this Page
Hits on this page since December 6th

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec

current year: previous year:

 Home Page  Useful National Web Links  Back: Display Previous Frame  Show Page Title Bar  Resize Window: 800x600 Resize Window: 1024x768 Resize Window: 1280x1024
 
The Church
People

Links
Locally
Bibliography


 Click here for more information
 Close this Menu Panel
ALPHABETICAL
SITE INDEX
Select ;-

Aa-Az   Ba-Bz   Ca-Cz   Da-Dz   Ea-Ez   Fa-Fz   Ga-Gz   Ha-Hz   Ia-Iz   Ja-Jz   Ka-Kz   La-Lz   Ma-Mz   Na-Nz   Oa-Oz   Pa-Pz   Qa-Qz   Ra-Rz   Sa-Sz   Ta-Tz   Ua-Uz   Va-Vz   Wa-Wz   Ya-Yz   
SW COUNTIES

DISCLAIMER: Whilst we endeavour to ensure the content of this site is correct, we cannot undertake that information you find here, is, or will remain accurate and complete. We do not warrant that any information contained on this site is fit for any purpose. If you wish to place reliance on any such information you must check its accuracy by some other means before doing so.

If you are in any way connected with any location mentioned on this site or have an interest in any of its contents and have an hour or two a month to spare, we would welcome you as a local moderator - please email the webmaster by CLICKING HERE.

Privacy Policy

last updated on
Copyright © 2000-2003 swukink.com
BAAAGBXA.php