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BibliographyLinksLocallyThe Commonwealth (1649-1660)
Henry VIII

The Act of Supremancy (entitled "An Act authorising the King, his Heirs and Successors, to be Supreme Head of the Church of Ireland . . . ") was passed by the Irish Parliament between October 13th and December 20th, 1536 (28 Henry VIII c.5) making the monarch supreme head of the Church of Ireland ;-

Like as the King's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognised by the clergy, and authorised by an Act of Parliament made and established in the same Realm: so in like manner of wise, forasmuch as this land of Ireland is depending and belonging justly and rightfully to the imperial Crown of England, . . . be it enacted by authority of this present Parliament, that the King our sovereign lord, and his heirs and successors, Kings of the said Realm of England, and Lords of this said land of Ireland, shall be accepted, taken, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the whole Church of Ireland . . . and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial Crown of England, as well the title and style thereof, . . .

BibliographyHenry VIIILinksLocallyTime-Line
The Commonwealth (1649-1660)


As in Scotland, Cromwell's actions made him very unpopular in Ireland; as a nominally independent nation, it was effectively conquered by English forces.

His suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people; nearly 3,500 people were massacred in Drogheda (around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests) after its capture. The event is one of the historical memories that has fuelled Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife which has troubled Ireland for over three centuries and continues to do so.

Cromwell felt justified in ordering the massacre because the city's defenders had continued to fight after the walls of Drogheda had been breached - in violation of what were then the conventions of warfare;-

I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood, and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are the satisfactory grounds to such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret.

Cromwell returned to England in May 1650 leaving the English army, under the command of Edmund Ludlow and Henry Ireton, to conquer the whole of Ireland. Ireland was fianlly subdued by the Commonwealth on April 27th, 1653 when Philip O'Reilly surrendered at Cloghoughton.

The Act for the the Settlement of Ireland was passed in August 1652 and authorized the expropriation of irish lands on a grand scale - eleven million acres out of approximately twenty million. Much of the confiscated land was given to English soldiers in lieu of their pay and they, in turn, sold it to Protestant settlers - by 1656, four-fifths of Irish land had passed into Protestant hands.

BibliographyHenry VIIILinksLocally
The Commonwealth (1649-1660)

This time-line has been generated for this page from our general time-line
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432St Patrick began his mission in Ireland
795The Norsemen gain a controlling influence in Ireland
1002Brian Boru becomes king of Ireland
1014Death of the Irish king Brian Boru at the Battle of Clontarf
Although he died in the battle, the Norsemen who had a controlling influence in Ireland since 795 were defeated in the battle
1169Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland through Baginbun, Co. Wexford
1170Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland begins
It continues, on and off, until 1600
1171Henry II visits Ireland to receive the submission of Irish bishops and chieftains
He also `granted, to his men of Bristol, his city of Dublin to be inhabited, together with all the liberties and free customs they had at Bristol and throughout his entire land`
1487.Jun.16Battle of Stoke: Lambert Simnel claiming to be the son of George, Duke of Clarence, gathers support in Ireland, which had favored the Yorkists and lands in the West Country. Henry VII crushes the rebels
Considered by some to be the last battle of the Wars of the Roses
1494Poynings\' Law is passed in Ireland subjecting all Irish Parliaments to the jurisdiction of the English Privy Council
1541Henry VIII assumes title of King of Ireland, and Head of the Church in Ireland
1561O\'Neill\'s rebellion in Ireland
1562.May.26Second rebellion of Shane O\\\' Neill in Ireland
1603.Mar.24Death of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-) of England and Ireland in the early hours
- succeeded to the crown by James VI of Scotland as James I
1618William, Baron Cavendish, created Earl of Devonshire for his services in Ireland
1633.Oct.14Birth of James Stuart, (James II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (1685-88)), the third son of King Charles I
1649.MarCromwell appointed lord-lieutenant and commander-in-chief for the suppression of royalist support in Ireland
The future Charles II was expected to land in Ireland any day to complete its conquest
1650Cromwell returns to England from Ireland, leaving the reduction of the Island (-1652) to his generals
1652.AugAct for the the Settlement of Ireland passed by the Commonwealth: authorizes the expropriation of Irish lands on a grand scale
By 1656, four-fifths of Irish land had passed into Protestant hands
1653.Apr.27Subjugation of Ireland by the Commonwealth as Philip O\'Reilly surrenders at Cloghoughton
1653.Dec.16Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament and became Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, effectively a military dictator
1656Irish represented at the Westminster parliament
by 1656Four-fifths of Irish land had passed into Protestant hands since the Act for the the Settlement of Ireland passed by the Commonwealth in August 1652
1689.Oct.25Bill of Rights (An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown) signed by by William of Orange and Mary II in return for confirmation as rulers of WEngland and Ireland by Parliament
1690.Jul.01Exiled James Stuart (James II of England -Dec.1688) defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, ending his claim to the Irish crown
1742John Wesley starts itinerant teaching in England, Scotland and Ireland
1801Act of Union: the Kingdom of Ireland united with the Kingdom of Great Britain to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1838Tithe Commutation Act (Ireland) Converted tithes into a fixed rent charge
Any surplus revenue was devoted to the Anglican Church in Ireland
1840Irish Municipal Act abolished 58 corporations, established ten new ones and reformed many municipal abuses in Ireland
1845The outbreak of potato blight in Ireland caused widespread famine and death
1912.Apr.11The ocean liner Titanic left Queenstown (now Cobh) in ireland,bound for New York
1952.Oct.03Major Gwilym Lloyd-George, Minister of Food, announces imminent lifting of tea rationing and price controls (rationing in force since Jan 1940)
Almost a third of world tea production consumed in the UK and Ireland
1958.Aug.18British Post Office issues its first regional stamps (N Ireland, Scotland and Wales)
1969.Aug.14British troops arrive in Northern Ireland to intervene in the sectarian violence between Protestants and Roman Catholics
1971.Oct.13British Army engineers start to blow up minor roads crossing the border from the Republic of Ireland into Northern Ireland to hamper the IRA
1972.May.30Official wing of the IRA in Northern Ireland announced a ceasefire
It reserved the right of self-defence against attacks by the British Army and sectarian groups
1972.Jul.10William Whitelaw, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, announces to the House of Commons that he has been involved in secret talks with the provisional IRA in London
1973.Jul.31First meeting of the Northern Ireland Assembly in Stormont Castle, Belfast, disrupted by protests and interruptions from 27 hardline loyalists led by Rev. Ian Paisley
1973.Dec.09Sunningdale Agreement for power-sharing in Northern Ireland signed by British Prime Minister Edward Heath, Irish premier Liam Cosgrave, and representatives of the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party and the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
1974.May.28Northern Ireland\'s first power-sharing assembly has collapses as its leader, Brian Faulkner, and fellow members resign following seven-days of general strike organised by militant unionists opposed to the Sunningdale agreement
The move left Northern Ireland facing direct rule from Westminster
1975.Sep.22Seventeen terrorist bomb blasts rock Northern Ireland
The Provisional IRA claimed responsibility for all the attacks
1983.Sep.25Thirty-eight prisoners escape from the high-security Maze prison in Northern Ireland
1984.Aug.16A Los Angeles federal jury acquits John Z DeLorean of charges that he conspired to import 100 kg of cocaine to raise money for his ailing sports car company based in Northern Ireland
1985.Nov.15Anglo-Irish agreement signed by PM Margaret Thatcher and Irish Prime Minister Garret FitzGerald at Hillsborough Castle, County Down, Northern Ireland giving the Republic a role in NI
1987.Nov.0811 killed by bomb blast during Remembrance Day service at Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, N Ireland
1990.Nov.08Ireland elects Mary Robinson as first woman president
1998.Aug.15Car bomb in Omagh, Northern Ireland, kills 29 people
2001.Oct.23IRA announced they had begun decommissioning weapons in order to save the Northern Ireland peace process
2003.Oct.1520-year-old Hannah White from Lymington in Hampshire who set off on a 1,500-mile voyage around Britain and Ireland in her 21-foot yacht abandoned the attempt after less than 12 hours with her mainsail ripped her autopilot faulty
2003.Oct.21PM Blaire announced Northern Ireland elections on November 26th which would restore devolved power-sharing
2003.Nov.26Northern Ireland Assembly elections

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BibliographyHenry VIIILocallyThe Commonwealth (1649-1660)

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