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The term "witchcraft" is used both to describe the practises of witches and the popular beliefs about those practices. Many people still believe that witches possess supernatural powers - powers which are beyond the natural powers of man.

European witchcraft is frequently percieved as a medieval phenomenon as is the persecution of witches. In fact, the persecution of witches is closely linked to the persecution of heretics by the Catholic Church and, in Britain, was most vigorously prosecuted from about 1560 to 1650.

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Little is known about European witchcraft until modern times and most of the early literature which does exist was written by those seeking to persecute "witches", real or percieved.

Those recorded as "witches" were most frequently women who practiced some form of herbal medicine or displayed some manner of behaviour which was unusual at the time and became unpopular in their community for some reason. They were then singled out for persecution.

Charges of heresy, or witchcraft, were frequently brought for political reasons. Within the community, the victim of a charge of witchcraft was often the scapegoat for misfortune by virtue of some unusual behaviour or through some minor personal animosity within that community.

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Statutes against witchcraft existed as early as the reign of William I ("the Conqueror").

De h�retico comburendo, passed in 1401 at the instigation of Archbishop Thomas Arundel, was the first Act of parliament to deal specifically with witchcraft. Witchcraft was specifically named sortilegium ("sorcery" or "divination") in the Act as a form of heresy and it provided that, unless the accused witch abjured these beliefs, he or she was to be burnt at the stake. The statute was directed against an ecclesiastical offence, and not technically a felony at common law and offenders were tried before an ecclesiastical tribunal with its procedure comparable to that of the Inquisition did not operate in England.

The penalty of burning at the stake was prescribed for ecclesiastical offences only because the Church daintily shied away from the physical shedding of blood.

People of medieval times believed that the Devil carried out his works on earth with the help of his minions, particularly "witches". It was, however, the bull "Summis desiderantes" of Pope Innocent VIII published in 1484 which declared this common belief to be the truth and started the European passion for the persecution of witches which lasted for over two centuries.

Thou shall not suffer a witch to live

  - Exodus 22:18
In the Hebrew, the word kasaph is used and this has been translated to witch, although a better translation might be seer or diviner

used the Hebrew word kasaph, translated "witch" although it means a seer or diviner.

While France, Scotland and the German-speaking territiories of Europe were the most active in hunting and killing witches, England, and particularly Essex, thrown into religious turmoil by the Reformation, the conflict between king and parliament which ed to the Civil War and the ravages of inflation, succumbed to the craze from the mid-16th century for about a hundred years.

In Essex alone, during the 120 years between 1560 and 1680, 317 women and 23 men were tried for witchcraft with over a hundred hanged. In 1645 there were 36 witch trials in this eastern county alone.

Matthew Hopkins

The son of a minister from Wenham in Suffolk, Hopkins became a lawyer and witch-hunter, received a fee for every witch who was hanged. Soon becomming wealthy and famous as the "Witchfinder General', he is believed to have been responsible for the hanging of as many as four hundred people.

His first victim, in March 1645 was Elizabeth Clark, an 80-year-old woman. Having succeeded in getting Elizabeth to name a 15-year-old girl as a witch and the girl her mother, by July of that year he had sent thirty-six women to imprisonment in Colchester Castle for witchcraft.

His usual prey were elderly and lonely women who had no-one to defend them of the witchcraft they were charged with. He is reputed, among his methods, to prick the suspect's "witch mark" with a knife to see if it bled (if the mark did not bleed, the accused was guilty of being in league with the devil) although it is possible that this may have involved some trickery on his part in using a retractible blade or similar.

In 1647, his lucrative career (he was paid �1 by the magistrates on the hanging of each witch) came to an end after he had secured the conviction of an 80-year-old preacher. Pamphlets against the witchhunts and Hopkins were published by John Gall who even suggested the witchhunter was a witch himself and Hopkins eventually came to the attention of parliament. Hopkins disappeared and tales of his fate vary, some claimed he was himself hanged after conviction for witchcraft, others maintain he died of consumption.

For over half a century, new English laws on witchcraft were made in almost each successive reign; 1542 (Henry VIII); 1547 (Edward VI); 1563 (Elizabeth I) and the most draconian in 1604 by James I which were finaly repealled in 1736. During the five-year reign of Queen Mary I (1553-1558), the country was too preoccupied with the burning of heretics as part of the Queen's Counter-Reformation to deal with legislation specifically covering witchcraft.

The acts of Elizabeth I and James I made witchcraft a felony and removed the jurisdiction from the ecclesiastical courts to the courts of common law. While, at least in theory, the accused enjoyed the benefits of ordinary criminal procedure as against that of the ecclesiastical courts, the Acts also invoked all the penalties of felonies against the convicted which including escheat (forfeiture of the convict's land and goods to the Crown). Burning at the stake in cases of witchcraft was eliminated in favour of hanging unless the case also involved petty treason.

Making witchcraft a felony and subject to escheat provided local officials with a financial reward for discovering witches and securing convictions which did nothing to temper any inclination they had to do so previously and could have played no small part in the mushrooming of cases brought before the courts.

. . . wretched creatures were compelled by the severity of the torture to confess things they have never done... and so by the cruel butchery innocent lives were tookn; and, by a new alchemy, gold and silver are coined from human blood.

  - Father Cornelius Loos, 1592

Following the restoration of the monarchy in the person of King Charles II in 1660, the ardour for hunting witches died away not through any diminished belief in or fear witches, but because the enterprise now bore the flavour of the "fanatical" Puritanism which led to the Civil War, the regicide of Charles I and the Commonwealth which followed.

By the reign of George II attitudes to witchcraft had changed drastically and the witchcraft statute of 1604 was replaced by another in 1736 which, in an about turn, now made it illegal to "pretend" to call up spirits, foretell the future, or cast spells. Transgressors of the new law could be punished as vagrant or fraudsters and subject to fines and imprisonment rather than hanging as before.

In 1951, largely at the instigation of Spiritualist mediums, the Act of 1736 was repealed.

The most active period of persecution of witches in England was the 17th century. James I had a reputation for being a learned authority on the subject of witches;

Thou mayst at leaisure consult the Learned Monarch King James, in his Daemonlogia, fol. 91.

  - A True and Impartial Relation of the Informations Against Three Witches . . .

The practice of witchcraft was punishable by law only only when actual or intended injury to the person, property or profit by the witch could be proved. All too frequently the 'agrieved'populace took matters into their own hands and, after being subjected to various ordeals, the witch was put to death by burning.

By an Act of Parliament passed in 1736, any person convicted of fortune-telling may be punished by imprisonment for a year.

The last person to be tried for witchcraft in England was Jane Wenham in 1712, the last European witch to be burnt was executed in Switzerland in 1782.

English witches were often more fortunate than their European counterparts from the late 17th century, onwards. Not only did the common law of England prohibit the use of torutre to extract confessions, but the law was adminsitered by the aristoctracy as judges and magistrates who held much greater sway over the outcome of a trial than the jury - the educated upper classes were far more sceptical of charges and "evidence" brought against "witches" than the accused's peers who formed the jury. Indeed, when the obsolete law condemning the convicted "witch" to death was repealed by Parliament in 1736, much indignation was caused amongst the common populace.

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Scotland, 1563

The Quenis Majestie and thre Estatis in this present parliment being informit that the havy, abominabill superstitioun usit be divers of the leigis of this Realme be using of witchcraftis, sorsarie ans necromancie, and credence gevin thairto in tymes bygane aganis the Law of God; and for avoyding and away putting of all sic vane superstitioun in tymes tocum. it is statute and ordainit be the quenis ajestie and thre Estatis fairsidis that na maner of persounis of quhatsumver estate, degre, or conditiounthay be of tak upone hand in ony tumes heirinafter to use ony maner of witchcraftis, sorcarie, or necromanciue, nor gif thame selfis futh to have ony sic craft or knaeledge thairof,thairthrow abusand the pepill; nor that na persoun seik ony help, response, or consultation at ony sic usaris (or abusaris) foirsaidis of withchcraftis, sorcareis or necromancie, under the pane of dead, asweill to be execute aganis the user abusar of the response or consultatioun.

  - law against witchcraft passed by the Scottish parliament in 1563 during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots

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James I

King James VI of Scotland, on the death of Elizabeth I to become James I of England, married a Danish princess Anne by proxy. Despite setting out several times from Copenhagen to deliver the new queen of Scotland to Scotland at Edinburgh in 1589, the tiny fleet was beaten back to the coast of Norway repeatedly until the attempt was abandoned.

The failure of the Danes to deliver up the queen he had already married by proxy, led James to set sail in October 1589 to personally collect Anne from Denmark. The Scottish king stayed for six months and it was there that he had several discussuions with Niels Hemmingsen, the Danish expert on witchcraft. When the royal couple returned to Scotland on May 1st, 1590 with their entourage, the fleet was again battered by storms in the Firth of Forth and, although the king and queen made their landfall safely enough, one of the ships of the fleet was lost.

The failure of the Danish fleet was blamed by the admiral on witchcraft and Anna Koldings was arrested. Under interrogation she named five other women. All six confessed to sorcery and endangering Anne of Denmark's fleet by sending devils up the keel of her devil. News of the trial and condemnation of the witches reached Scotland in July.

In November and December 1590, over fourty men and women from East Lothian were rounded up and accused of witchcraft and treason in conspiring to kill the King by causing the storm in the Forth. All were tried in Edinburgh in what became known as the "North Berwick Witch Trials" and brutally executed.

The first of the accused to confess was a midwife with a reputation for healing from Keith near Soutra, Agnes Sampson, who became known as the "Great Witch". One of the accusations against her being that she "cured" people.

It may be that the "North Berwick" "witches" aroused the suspicion of the leaders of the Kirke and were targeted because of their use of herbal remedies produced by the Augustinian monks at the hosptial at Soutra, one of the largest in Europe at the time, and archaeologists have uncovered evidence that the Scottish monks used sophisticated remedies and even carried out major surgery. Seed of both cannabis and opium have been found on the site which may account for the monks' reputation for amputating the limbs of soldiers who didn't feel any pain during their ordeal.

Calderwood, in his Histories of the Kirk of Scotland describes how . . .

Sindrie of the witches confessed they had sindrie times companie with the devill at the kirk of Northberwick, where he appeared to them in the likeness of a man with a redde cappe, and a rumpe at his taill.

. . . and a pamphlet about the events, for the most part propaganda thought to have been penned by James Carmichael, the minister of Haddington who led the witch-hunts, was published in 1591, entitled "Newes from Scotland". It details the . . .

damnable life of Dr Fian, a notable sorcerer, who was burned at Edenborough in Januarie last . . . which doctor was register to the devill, that sundrie times preached at North Baricke Kirke, to a number of notorious witches . . .

  John Cunningham ("Fian" was his witch-name) was a young schoolteacher

James VI seems to have had several motives for personally pursuing witch-hunts in Scotland; asserting his own position as King (he acceeded to the throne on the deposition of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots); strengthening the Kirke of Scotland against the Catholics; and using the testimony of the alleged "witches" against his enemies who including the Earl of Bothwell, next in line to the Scottish throne, and who James was convinced was trying to kill him. In a time when doctors still studied astrology and the prevailing theory in medicine was the theory of humours, James VI's involvement in witchcraft may have been due to his belief in it, and in treason.

In 1599, James VI published his Demonologie which, written by the hand of a monarch, fanned the fear of witches throughout Europe.

With the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, James succeeded to the throne of England as James I. Such was his fascination with witchcraft that Shakespeare wrote Macbeth for the king featuring the three witches and possibly using North Berwick witch trials as his inspiration.

The witchcraft Act of James I (1604) was comparable to a statute passed in 1563 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I although harsher. The new law made the first offense for maleficia punishable by mandatory hanging, even where the allegedy bewitched person did not die, although the famous 17th century lawyer, Sir Robert Filmer, complained that it was necessary to show an intent to kill to secure a conviction for witchcraft;-

Although the statute runs in the disjunctive or, and so makes every single crime capital, yet the judges usually by a favorable interpretation take the disjunctive or for the copulative and, and therefore ordinarily they condemn none for witches unless they be charged with the murdering of some person.

  - Sir Robert Filmer, Advertisement to the Jurymen of England Touching Witches, London, 1653


Be it enacted by the King, our sovereign lord, the Lords spiritual and temporal, and the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that the statute made in the fifth year of the reign of our late sovereign Lady of most famous and happy memory. Queen Elizabeth intituled "An Act against conjurations, enchantments, and witchcrafts," be from the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel next coming, for and concerning all offenses to be committed after the same feast, utterly repealed.

And for the better restraining the said offenses, and more severe punishing the same, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any person or persons, after the said Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel next coming, [a] shall use, practice, or exercise any invocation, or conjuration, of any evil and wicked spirit, or shall consult, covenant with, entertain, employ, feed, or reward any evil and wicked spirit to or for any intent or purpose; or [b] take up any dead man, woman, or child out of his, her, or their grave, or any other place where the dead body resteth, or the skin, bone, or any other part of any dead person, to be employed or used in any manner of witchcraft, sorcery, charm, or enchantment; or [c] shall use, practice, or exercise any witchcraft, enchantment, charm, or sorcery, whereby any person shall be killed, destroyed, wasted, consumed, pined, or lamed in his or her body, or any part thereof; that then every such offender or offenders, their aiders, abettors, and counselors, being of any the said offenses duly and lawfully convicted and attainted, shall suffer pains of death as a felon or felons, and shall lose the privilege and benefit of clergy and sanctuary.

And further, to the intent that all manner of practice, use, or exercise of witchcraft, enchantment, charm, or sorcery should be from henceforth utterly avoided, abolished, and taken away, be it enacted by the authority of this present Parliament, that if any person or persons shall, from and after the said Feast of St. Michael the Archangel next coming, take upon him or them by witchcraft, enchantment, charm, or sorcery, [a] to tell or declare in what place any treasure of gold or silver should or might be found or had in the earth or other secret places, or where goods or things lost or stolen should be found or become; or [b] to the intent to provoke any person to unlawful love; or [c] whereby any chattel or goods of any person shall be destroyed, wasted, or impaired; or [d] to hurt or destroy any person in his or her body, although the same be not effected and done; that then all and every such person and persons so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted, shall for the said offense suffer imprisonment by the space of one whole year, without bail or mainprize, and once in every quarter of the said year shall in some market town, upon the market day or at such time as any fair shall be kept there, stand openly upon the pillory by the space of six hours, and there shall openly confess his or her error and offense.

IV. And if any person or persons being once convicted of the same offenses as is aforesaid eftsoons perpetrate and commit the like offense, that then every such offender, being of any the said offenses the second time lawfully and duly convicted and attainted as is aforesaid, shall suffer pains of death as a felon or felons, and shall lose the benefit and privilege of clergy and sanctuary. Saving to the wife of such person as shall offend in anything contrary to this act her title of dower; and also to the heir and successor of every such person his or their titles of inheritance, succession, and other rights, as though no such attainder of the ancestor or predecessor had been made.

V. Provided always that if the offender in any of the cases aforesaid shall happen to be a peer of this realm, then his trial therein to be had by his peers, as is used in cases of felony or treason, and not otherwise.

  - An Act Against Conjuration, Witchcraft, and Dealing with Evil and Wicked Spirits, 1694 (James I)

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Witchcraft is a legally recognized religion in the United States,as declared in 1985, Dettmer V. Landon (617 E Supp.529) the District Court of Virginia pursuant to rule 52a of the Rules of Civil procedure. Reaffirmed in 1986 in the Federal Appeals Court, Fourth Circuit, Butzner J. (592 F. 2d. 934) Henceforth, Witchcraft and Witches are protected under the United States Constitution (Amendment I;XIV)

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The Museum of Witchcraft

The Museum of Witchcraft is one of Cornwalls oldest and most popular museums. Its collection of artefacts demonstrates that witchcraft was an important part of rural life and that magic still influences everyday life. Healing, cursing and folk magic are amongst the many subjects explored in depth in this fascinating and spellbinding museum.
Opening: Easter to Halloween, 10.30am - 6.00pm daily
Sundays 11.30am - 6.00pm
Admission: Adults �2.50, Children and Seniors �1.50
The Museum Of Witchcraft,
The Harbour, Boscastle, Cornwall PL35 0HD
tel:   01840 250111
email:   museumwitchcraft@aol.com
web-site:   www.museumofwitchcraft.com


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1324Trial of Alice Kyteler at Kilkenny, Ireland (witchcraft)
1401The Act, De h�retico comburendo, passed by parliament at the instigation of Archbishop Thomas Arundel, was the first to deal specifically with witchcraft (as a church offence)
1484Papal Bull Summis desiderantes; pope Innocent VIII provides his blessing and encouragement to witchhunting, confirming witches as the minions of the devil
1486Publication of Malleus maleficarum (The Hammer of the Witches) - an exposition of witchcraft and a code of procedure for detection and punishment of witches - by German witchhunters
1536.MayAnne Boleyn accused of treason
On charges of having used witchcraft to trap Henry VIII into marriage; enticing 5 men into adulterous affairs with her; of causing the king bodily harm and of conspiring to effect his death
1542Statute against witchcraft (-1547); invokes the death penalty for invoking or conjuring an evil spirit
1547Repeal of the Statute against witchcraft of 1542
1553.MayJohn Dee tried for black magic before the Star Chamber and imprisoned (reign of Mary I)
1563An Act against conjurations, enchantments, and witchcrafts (-1604)
1563Publication of De praestigiis daemonum by Johann Weyer
1563Witchcraft becomes punishable by death (-1735) in Scotland
1565Possession of Nicole Obry at Vervins in Picardy (-1566)
1565.JulFirst Chelmsford witch trials; first trial for witchcraft in an English secular court
Elizabeth Frances, Agnes Waterhouse and her daughter Joan were accused at Chelmsford in Essex
1567.Jul.24Deposition (abdication) of Mary, Queen of Scots in favour of her infant Protestant son who is proclaimed as James VI of Scotland at Stirling (later James I of England), Moray becomes regent
1579The Windsor witch trials
1579Second Chelmsford witch trials
1580Publication of Daemonomanie des sorciers by Jean Bodin
1581Witchcraft prosecutions in the Archbishopric of Trier (-1593)
1584Publication of The Discoverie of Witchcraft by Reginald Scot
1589Third Chelmsford witch trials
158914 convicted witches at Tours appeal to King Henry III
The King in turn accused of protecting witches
1590North Berwick Witch trials; involving James VI of Scotland (James I of England) - the first witchcraft trials in Scotland 1590-1591 The North Berwick witch trials in Scotland.
1590.May.01James VI and his wife Anne land in Scotland battered by storms in the Firth of Forth
1594Conviction of Senelle Petter for witchcraft in Lorraine
1597Publication of Daemonologie by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England)
1597Bewitchment of Thomas Darling and trial of Alice Gooderidge
1603.Mar.24Death of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-) of England and Ireland in the early hours
- succeeded to the crown by James VI of Scotland as James I
1604An Act Against Conjuration, Witchcraft, and Dealing with Evil and Wicked Spirits (-1736); similar in many ways to the Elizabethan Act of 1563 which it repealed, but harsher
1605Trial of the Abingdon witches
1609Convent possession in Aix-en-Provence, France (-1611)
1611Mass witch trials in the Imperial Provostry of Ellwangen (-1613)
1612Lancashire witch trials
1616Thomas Tyher accused by the churchwardens of witchcraft at Charminster in Dorset
1616Leicester boy, John Smith, acused of witchcraft
1620.AugArrest of Katherine, mother of the mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler for witchcraft
1621.OctRelease Katherine, mother of the mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler, arrested for witchcraft in August 1620
1628Trial of Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, for witchcraft
1629Witch trials in the Bishopric of W�rzburg
1631Anonymous publication of Cautio criminalis by Friedrich von Spee
1632Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg
His death marks the end of the terrible persecutions for witchcraft in the large principality
1647Hanging for witchcraft of Matthew Hopkins, Wtchfinder General, thought to have been reponsible for the hanging of up to 400 alleged witches
1653Publication by the lawyer Sir Robert Filmer of his Advertisement to the Jurymen of England Touching Witches
1655Publication of Treatise Concerning Enthusiasme by Causaubon discussing how natural elation was mistaken for either divine inspiration or diabolical possession
1682.Aug.14Three Bideford women tried for witchcraft at Exeter convicted and sentenced to death - the last execution for witchcraft in England
1684Last execution of a witch in England
1712Jane Wenham was the last person to be tried for witchcraft in England
1712Last trial for witchcraft in England
1735Witchcraft ceases to be a capital offence (1563-) in Scotland
1736Act of Parliament allows those convicted of fortune telling to be imprisoned for a year
1736Parliament repealed the law, already obsolete in practice, condemning a convicted witch to death. While being a witch was not illegal, pretenses to such arts and powers were made illegal
The measure caused considerable indignation amongst the uneducated majority of the population.
The Act was repealed in 1951
1736Repeal of the 1604 witchcraft Act
1751.Aug.24Hanging of chimney-sweep Thomas Colley for murder (as ringleader) after Ruth Osborne is floated, suspected of witchcraft, and drowns at Tring, Hertfordshire
1782Last burning of a witch in Europe (Switzerland)
1951Repeal of the 1736 Witchcraft Act
(largely at the instigation of Spiritualist mediums)

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  Essex Witch Trials
  Heinrich Kramer & James Sprenger (1486)
The Burning Times Myth
  Arlea ��elwyrd Hunt-Ansch�tz
Witchcraft Of Olden Times


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Treatise Concerning Enthusiasme
  by Causaubon, 1655

History of Witchcraft and Demonology
  by M Summers, 1926

Malleus Maleficarum
  by Heinrich Kramer + James Sprenger, 1486

Witchcraft, Magic and Culture 1736-1951
  by Owen Davies, publisher
Manchester University Press, 1999

Advertisement to the Jurymen of England Touching Witches
  by Sir Robert Filmer, publisher London, 1653

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